Chernivtsi University (Chernivetskyi derzhavnyi universytet). The university was founded in 1875, succeeding the Chernivtsi Higher Theological School, which had existed since 1827. Until 1918 it was known as Franz-Josefs Universitat, with German as the language of instruction and separate departments of Ukrainian and Romanian language and literature. From 1919 to 1940 it was the Universitatea Regele Carol i din Cernăuţi, with instruction in Romanian, and since 1940 it has borne its present name.

During the Austrian period Chernivtsi University had three faculties: Orthodox theology, law, and philosophy. The department of Ukrainian language and literature was in the faculty of philosophy and was chaired by Klymentii Hankevych and Omelian Kaluzhniatsky (1875–6), Hnat Onyshkevych (1877–82), and Stepan Smal-Stotsky (1885–1918). The department of Slavic languages was headed by O. Kaluzhniatsky (1875–99) and Yevhen Kozak (1899–1923). The department of practical theology was under the direction of Denys Yeremiichuk-Yeremiiv (1899–1919).

In this period the university was attended not only by Bukovynians, but also by many Galician students, among whom were Ivan Franko, Les Martovych, and Denys Lukiianovych. V. Milkovych defended a doctoral thesis on the history of Eastern Europe and eventually was appointed professor at the university (1895–1919). Oleksander Kolessa received a doctorate in the Ukrainian language. The following rectors of the university were Ukrainians: K. Tomashchuk (1875–6), O. Kaluzhniatsky (1889–90), and Yevhen Kozak (1907–8). Ukrainian students constituted, on the average, about 20–25 percent of students enrolled: 41 out of a total of 208 in 1875, and 303 out of a total of 1,198 in 1914. There were about as many Romanians, with the majority of students being Jewish or German.

In 1918–40 Chernivtsi University was Romanianized: the Ukrainian departments were dissolved, and the Ukrainian professors dismissed. The faculty of philosophy was split into the faculty of philosophy and literature and the faculty of natural science. For many years the university's rector was I. Nistor, who was hostile towards Ukrainians. In 1920 there were 239 Ukrainians in a student body of 1,671. In 1933 the body of 3,247 students consisted of 2,117 Romanians, 679 Jews, 199 Germans, 155 Ukrainians, 57 Poles, and 40 of other nationalities.

In 1940 northern Bukovyna was annexed to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Ukrainian became the language of instruction at Chernivtsi University. The university was reorganized at first into 7 faculties and by 1982 had grown to 10 faculties: history, philology, foreign languages, geography, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, oriental studies, and general engineering. The theological faculty was abolished. Evening-school, correspondence-school, and graduate-school programs were introduced. In 1982–3 there were close to 10,000 students enrolled at the university, 54 percent of whom were correspondence and evening students. The teaching faculty numbered about 500, including 26 full professors.

The university's main building is the previous residence of the metropolitan. There are a number of research institutions associated with the university: a botanical garden (est 1877), a biological research base in Zhuchka, a physics laboratory for semiconductor and thermodynamic research, an experimental fish farm, seismological and meteorological stations, and four museums (of zoology, botany, geology, and the university's history). The library possesses about 1.7 million books. The university has published Naukovi zapysky (58 vols, as of 1967), monographs, textbooks, and many other works. In 1982 its rector was K. Chervinsky. Public efforts to rename the university in honor of Yurii Fedkovych, led by the literary scholar Yevhen Kyryliuk, did not gain the consent of the authorities. In the 1970s a faculty-and student-exchange program was established between Chernivtsi University and the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. In 2000 its name was changed to Chernivtsi National University.

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A. Zhukovsky

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