Image - An apple orchard in Vinnytsia oblast. Image - Apple: Platon Symyrenko's renet

Apple (Malus; Ukrainian: yablunia). A genus of the family Rosaceae; the most important fruit tree of the temperate latitudes. The tree grows to a height of 10–15 m and sometimes takes the form of a shrub. There are over 30 wild species of the apple tree, 3 of which grow in Ukraine: the wild crab or common apple (M. sylvestris), the M. dasyphilla, and the common or edible apple (M. pumila). There are about 100 varieties of the cultivated apple tree (M. domestica) in Ukraine, and they are of great economic importance. Apples contain sugars, organic acids, pectins, vitamins, and mineral salts. Some apple trees are decorative, but all apple trees are a source of honey. In Ukraine apple trees occupy about 65 percent of the land devoted to orchards. Their productivity reaches 400–500 kg per tree. The fruit is consumed fresh, dried, or processed into preserves, marmalade, and wine. In Ukraine the most common apple trees are the following: the Papirovka, Borovynka, and Doneshta, whose fruit ripens in the summer; the Common Antonivka, Pepinka, and Fall Putivka, whose fruit ripen in the fall; and the Snow Kalvil, Platon Symyrenko’s Renet (named by Lev Symyrenko in honor of his father Platon), and Champagne Renet, whose fruit ripens in winter.

[This article originally appeared in Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]

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