IEU'S FEATURED TOPIC IN UKRAINIAN CULTURE AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY



HIGHER COLLEGES AND LYCEUMS IN 18TH- AND 19TH-CENTURY UKRAINE

While the Kyivan Mohyla Academy was undoubtedly the leading center of higher education in 17th- and 18th-century Ukraine and it exerted a significant intellectual influence over the entire Orthodox world at the time, a number of lesser educational institutions played an essential role in educating Ukrainian elites on local levels, but also in broader socio-cultural contexts. In an educational system of the Cossack Hetman state, and later in Russian-ruled Ukraine, in which there was often no clear distinction bewteen lower, middle, and higher schools, the three Orthodox colleges--the Chernihiv College, Kharkiv College, and Pereiaslav College, which functioned in the 18th and early 19th century--were particularly important, as they combined in their curriculum elements of upper secondary education and higher education. At the same time, in Right-Bank Ukraine, among the numerous Uniate colleges run by the Basilian monastic order only a few--in Zhyrovichy, Buchach, and Volodymyr (in Volhynia)--introduced some courses of the higher grades in the 18th century. Later, in the 19th century, when first universities appeared in Russian-ruled Ukraine, the higher secondary education remained, nonetheless, vitally important. In 1820 the Bezborodko Gymnasium of Higher Education, later known as the Nizhyn Lyceum, was opened in Nizhyn in the Chernihiv region. Its nine-year study program was considerably more demanding than that of a secondary level and compared favorably with that offered by most Russian universities. A comparable institution in Right-Bank Ukraine, the Kremenets Lyceum, was focused primarily on educating members of the Polish nobility. In the second half of the 19th century, in spite of heavy restrictions placed by the imperial Russian system on the Ukrainian national life, certain new institutions, such as the Galagan College in Kyiv, began to play a key role in the process of fostering a new nationally-conscious Ukrainian intellectual stratum... Learn more about the higher colleges and lyceums in Ukraine in the 18th and 19th centuries by visiting the following entries:




CHERNIHIV COLLEGE. An educational institution in Chernihiv that functioned in the 18th and early 19th centuries and combined elements of upper secondary education and higher education. The first official mention of the college is found in a 1694 charter. The college's growth in the early 18th century was substantially promoted by the Archbishop of Chernihiv Ioan Maksymovych. The institution benefitted from the support of a wide circle of patrons, and in particular Hetman Ivan Mazepa. In Zertsalo ot Pisaniia Bozhestvennoho, a book edited by the college’s superintendent Antonii Stakhovsky and published in 1705, there is a special dedication to Mazepa stressing the part he played in the construction of the school. The college, whose teaching practices were patterned on those of the Kyivan Mohyla Academy (which, in their turn, replicated, to a large extent, the system implemented in Jesuit colleges (Ratio Studiorum), enrolled students of various social estates. During the first decades of its existence, the college's student body numbered around 200; by the end of the 18th century it grew to its historical maximum of over 700...

Chernihiv College



KHARKIV COLLEGE. Founded in 1722 in Belgorod as a Slavo-Latin school by Bishop Yepyfanii Tykhorsky, the college was relocated to Kharkiv in 1726. At Tykhorsky's request, the neighboring Church of the Holy Protection of the Mother of God was appended to the school, whereupon this complex became known as the Scholastic Monastery of the Holy Protection. It was directed by an archimandrite who concurrently held the office of the rector at the school. In his efforts to expand the school's privileges, Tykhorsky appealed to the imperial authorities and obtained a letters patent according to which Kharkiv College was permitted to enrol pupils from different estates and was granted the right to instruct them in poetics, rhetoric, philosophy, and theology, as well as to carry out legal proceedings against both its teachers and students. Together with the Kyivan Mohyla Academy, Kharkiv College (sometimes called an academy in the official documents from the 1740s on) was an important centre for the education of Ukrainian clerical and secular elite, especially for the eastern Ukrainian lands, until the end of the 18th century...

Kharkiv College



PEREIASLAV COLLEGE. Founded in 1738 by Bishop Arsenii Berlo of Pereiaslav, the college was initially housed in a wooden building within the premises of the Ascension Monastery before it was moved into a larger brick building in 1753. The curricullum at Pereiaslav College followed the patterns typical of the Kyivan Mohyla Academy and foresaw the pupils' consecutive mastering of grammar, poetics, rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. Hryhorii Skovoroda taught classes in poetics in the college during the 1753-54 academic year. In the second half of the 18th century, the list of subjects taught in the classes of poetics and rhetoric was expanded to include history, geography, mathematics, Russian, and Ancient Greek (from 1784). Instruction in philosophy, following the Leibnizian-Wolffian system, was introduced in 1773. Theology was added to the curriculum in 1781, with Varlaam Shyshatsky serving as the first professor of theology at the college. The college possessed a separate house that served as a bursa for students, which was described by the writer Vasyl Narizhny in his autobiographical short novel Bursak (The Bursa Resident, 1824)...

Pereiaslav College



NIZHYN LYCEUM. One of the older institutions of higher learning in Ukraine. Founded in Nizhyn as the Bezborodko Gymnasium of Higher Education in 1820 with an endowment of 210,000 rubles from Count Illia Bezborodko, it emphasized humanities and was initially a gymnasium for the sons of the gentry. Its nine-year program offered a classical education with instruction in religion, classical and modern languages, geography, history, physics and mathematics, political economy, military science, and the arts. The first director was Vasyl Kukolnyk. By 1832 the gymnasium had graduated over 100 students, including the writers Mykola Hohol (Nikolai Gogol) and Yevhen Hrebinka and the jurist Vasyl Tarnovsky. In 1832 the gymnasium was transformed into a technical (physico-mathematical) lyceum for the training of military officers, and in 1840 it became a law school preparing officials for the juridical bureaucracy. After the Revolution of 1917 the institute was transformed into Nizhyn Institute of People's Education (1922) and then Nizhyn Pedagogical Institute (1934). Today it functions as Nizhyn State University...

Nizhyn Lyceum



KREMENETS LYCEUM. A Polish higher school in Kremenets, formed in 1819 out of the local gymnasium, which had been established in 1805 by Tadeusz Czacki to serve as a university for the young nobles of the Kyiv region, Podilia, and Volhynia. The reorganization of the school into a lyceum did not entail any significant change in its program. It offered a general education consisting of four one-year grades (languages, mathematics, geography, calligraphy) and three upper two-year grades (languages, theology, history, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, botany, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, civil architecture, and technology). Besides Polish, which was the language of instruction, Russian, Latin, and German were taught (English and Greek were optional). Most of the students were Poles: in 1821 only 34 of the 600 enrolled students were Ukrainian. Because many of the lyceum students took part in the Polish Insurrection of 1830-1, the authorities closed the school and in 1832 transferred its library, collections, and faculty to Kyiv, where they became the foundation on which Kyiv University was established...

Kremenets Lyceum



GALAGAN COLLEGE. A private preparatory boarding school for boys in Kyiv founded on 1 October 1871 by Hryhorii Galagan in memory of his deceased son Pavlo. Initially patterned on English colleges, it was funded from Galagan's private capitals (1,120,000 roubles in total were spent during his lifetime). Thanks to Galagan's friendship with Kyiv governor-general and his wide experience as a patron of education, the newly-founded college received its own statute safeguarding its wide-ranging autonomy in designing its curriculum, choosing teaching methods, and recruiting its staff. Owing to the Ukrainophile sympathies of its founder--an amateur ethnographer and enthusiastic supporter of local artists, teachers, and scholars--the college became one of the most significant centers of Ukrainian culture and education in Russian-ruled Ukraine. In the words of Ahatanhel Krymsky, the college's famous graduate, the school 'was considered to be a hotbed of Ukrainianism,' whose objective was 'to educate the Ukrainian intelligentsia regardless of class divides, whereby all aristocrats and plebeians could be united in the single nation...'

Galagan College


The preparation, editing, and display of IEU articles about the higher colleges and lyceums in Ukraine in the 18th and 19th centuries were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



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