Abbreviations. Used in the Ukrainian language (especially after the 1917 revolution) as substitutes for the names of institutions, states, official positions, and the like, whose names in full are phrases developed in Ukrainian since the beginning of the 20th century. The main types are (1) initials of the component words read each as a sound: SŠA (pronounced sša) = Spolúčeni Štáty Améryky (United States of America); (2) initials of the component words read as letter names: UNR (pronounced uenér) = Ukrajíns’ka Naródnja Respúblika (Ukrainian National Republic); (3) syllabic, with a syllable (and usually the first consonant of the next syllable) from each component word: liknép = likvidácija nepys’ménnosty (elimination of illiteracy); (4) mixed: Dniprohés = Dnipróvs’ka Hidroelektrýčna Stáncija (Dnipro Hydroelectric Station); (5) partial, with only the first word component abbreviated as in syllabic abbreviations: medsestrá = medýčna sestrá (hospital nurse). The last type functions as a compound word without a linking vowel.

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