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Go To Top Of Page  Explanatory Notes.

In general matters of style, the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine follows The Chicago Manual of Style. Spelling conforms by and large to the American variant of English found in Webster's Dictionary. The editors have ‘anglicized’ many frequently used Ukrainian words by giving them English plural endings. Such words are not italicized in the text; for example: zemstvo/s, sobor/s, opryshok/s, kobzar/s, duma/s, hetman/s, and tekhnikum/s. Most words of non-English origin, however, unless they have already been accepted into the English language, are italicized in the text and retain their original plurals.

The editors have striven to find English equivalents for as many Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, and other foreign words as possible. Thus the terms povit, uezd, komitat, zhupa have all been translated as ‘county.’ The word ‘gubernia’ is now an accepted English word, as is ‘voivodeship’ (for voievodstvo or województwo). In most cases, administrative and territorial terms not having English equivalents have been transliterated, but not italicized, and have been given English plurals; for example, stanytsia/s, gmina/s, okruha/s, kurin/s, zemlia/s, palanka/s.

With rare exceptions, weights and measures are given in metric forms, and temperatures are given in centrigrade degrees. Dates are given according to the New Style (Gregorian) calendar.

Abbreviations in the text are not usually followed by a period, with the exception of initials of personal names and the abbreviation for ‘number’ - ‘no.’ - in order to distinguish it from the word ‘no’.

Go To Top Of Page  Transliteration.


Two systems have been used to transliterate words and proper names from the Cyrillic alphabet (see table below and also at Link 1):

1. The modified Library of Congress system (see Link 2) is used in the titles and in texts of all but the linguistic entries. A widely accepted modified form of this system has been applied, which omits the diacritical marks and ligatures. Only in the case of the word Rus' is the diacritic retained to indicate the soft sign. At the end of surnames ‘-ий’ is transliterated as ‘y.’ The letters ‘є,’ ‘й,’ ‘ю,’ and ‘я’ in initial positions in proper names is transliterated as ‘Ye,’ ‘Y,’ ‘Yu,’ and ‘Ya,’ respectively.

2. The strict Library of Congress system (with diacritical marks, but not ligatures) has been used to transliterate all published and manuscript titles.

3. The International Linguistic system has been used to transliterate the phonetic equivalents of non-English entry titles as a pronunciation guide; they appear in brackets following the entry titles. This system is used only for linguistic terms in entries on linguistic topics (but not proper names). Ukrainian surnames transliterated from languages other than English are given in parentheses after the linguistic transliteration.

The first names of non-English individuals are generally not anglicized; for example, Mykhailo does not become Michael, Ivan does not become John. The only exception is for individuals or historical figures who have well-established English names.



TRANSLITERATION OF UKRAINIAN

Ukrainian

Modified LC

Strict LC

Linguistic

А

A

A

A

Б

B

B

B

В

V

V

V

Г

H

H

H

Ґ

G

G

G

Д

D

D

D

Е

E

E

E

Є

Ye/ie

Ie

Je

Ж

Zh

Zh

Ž

З

Z

Z

Z

И

Y

Y

Y

I

I

I

I

Ï

I

Ï

Ji

Й

Y/i

I

J

K

K

K

K

Л

L

L

L

M

M

M

M

Н

N

N

N

O

O

O

O

П

P

P

P

Р

R

R

R

C

S

S

S

T

T

T

T

У

U

U

U

Ф

F

F

F

Х

Kh

Kh

X

Ц

Ts

Ts

C

Ч

Ch

Ch

Č

Ш

Sh

Sh

Š

Щ

Shch

Shch

Šč

Ю

Yu/iu

Iu

Ju

Я

Ya/ia

Ia

Ja

Ь

[omit]

'

'

-ий

-y

-yi

-yj



Go To Top Of Page  Geographical entries.

Geographical names in Ukraine and on historically Ukrainian ethnic territories have been transliterated from the Kharkiv orthography using the modified Library of Congress system. For technical reasons, maps in the encyclopedia occasionally have names in the linguistic form of transliteration. Entries on cities, towns, and villages provide, after the entry title, the relevant co-ordinates on the map of Ukraine accompanying the encyclopedia. Doubling of consonants has been suppressed; for example, the forms ‘Polisia,’ ‘Podilia,’ and ‘Zaporizhia’ are used. The full transliteration of names with double consonants appears only in the linguistic transliteration that follows the main entry title.

Certain places have acquired generally accepted English names; these have been retained. Thus, the reader will find the names Sea of Azov, Bessarabia, Black Sea, Carpathian Mountains, Caucasia, Crimea, Danube River, Dnieper River, Dniester River, Galicia, Podlachia, and Volhynia in the text. The only exceptions are the use of the Ukrainian transliterated name ‘Bukovyna’ instead of ‘Bucovina’ or ‘Bukovina,’ and of the Ukrainian names ‘Donbas,’ ‘Kyiv,’ and ‘Odesa’ instead of the Russian forms ‘Donbass,’ ‘Kiev,’ and ‘Odessa.’

Entries on population centers indicate whether they are cities, towns, or villages. A place that has been designated in Ukraine as ‘urban-type settlement’ (selyshche miskoho typu) is designated here as a town and has the acronym of the Ukrainian term—‘smt’—following the word ‘town.’

Names of places outside Ukrainian ethnic territory are given in the accepted English form or are transliterated from the language of the country where they are found. Thus, for example, Belarusian names are transliterated from the Belarusian; Russian names, from the Russian; Polish names, from the Polish. Names of places on historically Ukrainian ethnic territory are transliterated from the Ukrainian (for example, Kholm instead of the Polish Chełm).

Go To Top Of Page  Organizations and institutions.

Descriptive names of organizations and institutions have been translated; for example, ‘Instytut botaniky’ appears as ‘Institute of Botany.’

Ascriptive names have not been translated, but transliterated. Usually a qualifier has been added. For example, ‘Ruska Besida’ appears in texts as the ‘Ruska Besida society.’

Entry titles for all names, both descriptive and ascriptive, include the linguistic transliteration from the original Ukrainian name in brackets at the end.

Names of organizations and institutions in the West are given in the official English form, if one exists, or are translated into English. If such organizations are known under other foreign names, these names are included only as cross-reference entry titles. For example, ‘Ukrainska Natsionalna Yednist u Frantsii’ and ‘Alliance Nationale Ukrainienne en France’ are both cross-reference entry titles; the text of the entry appears under the English translation ‘Ukrainian National Alliance in France.’

Many organizations that are popularly known by the short forms of their name appear in the text under the short forms. ‘Tsentrosoiuz,’ for example, is a main entry title. The longer, descriptive name is translated and appears as a cross-reference entry title only.

Factories, plants, and educational and cultural institutions usually appear under the name of the place where they are located. Institutes of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine all appear under the title ‘Institute of ...’

Go To Top Of Page  Abbreviations.

The following abbreviations are used in the entries:

AD

Anno Domini

approx

approximately

b

born

BC

Before Christ

C

Celsius, centigrade

ca

circa

Capt

Captain

cm

centimeter

Co

company (business)

Col

Colonel

comp

compiler, compiled by

cu

cubic

d

died

Dr

Doctor

ed

editor, edited by

edn

edition

eds

editors

eg

for example

est

established

et al

and others

etc

and so forth

g

gram

Gen

General

Gov

Governor

ha

hectare

ie

that is

kg

kilogram

km

kilometer

kW

kilowatt

l

liter

Lt

Lieutenant

m

meter

Maj

Major

mg

milligram

ml

milliliter

nd

no date

no., nos

number, numbers

np

no place

OS

Old Style

p, pp

page, pages

PH D

Doctor of Philosophy degree

Prof

Professor

repr

reprinted

Rev

Reverend

Sen

Senator

Sgt

Sergeant

smt

urban-type settlement

sq

square

St, SS

Saint, Saints

t

metric ton

vol, vols

volume, volumes




Go To Top Of Page  Acronyms.

The following acronyms are used in the text. Many acronyms are based on the original language but the full name is given in English translation.


AN URSR

Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR

ASSR

Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

CC

Central Committee

Cheka

Extraordinary Commission to Fight Counterrevolution, Sabotage, and Speculation

Comecon

Council of Mutual Economic Assistance

Comintern

Communist International

CP

Communist Party

CP(B)U

Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine

CPSU

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

CPU

Communist Party of Ukraine

Donbas

Donets Basin

Dp

Displaced Person

Gosplan

State Planning Commission for Agriculture and Industry of the Council of Ministers of the USSR

GPU

State Political Administration

GULAG

Main Administration of Labor Camps

KGB

Committee for State Security

kolkhoz

collective farm

Komsomol

Communist Youth League

LKSMU

Communist Youth League of Ukraine

MGB

Ministry of State Security

MVD

Ministry of Internal Affairs

NANU

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NEP

New Economic Policy

NKVD

People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs

OUN

Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists

Politburo

Political Bureau

RSFSR

Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic

SSR

Soviet Socialist Republic

TASS

Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union

UAN

Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

UNR

Ukrainian National Republic

UPA

Ukrainian Insurgent Army

US, USA

United States, United States of America

VUAN

All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences



Go To Top Of Page

The following acronyms of periodicals are used in bibliographies:

AIZR

Akty otnosiashchiesia k istorii Iuzhnoi i Zapadnoi Rossii

AOBM

Analecta Ordinis S. Basilii Magni (Rome)

AUA

Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the United States

ChSh

Chervonyi shliakh

CSP

Canadian Slavonic Papers

ERU

Ekonomika Radians’koï Ukraïny

EZ

Etnohrafichnyi zbirnyk (Lviv)

HUS

Harvard Ukrainian Studies

Izh

Istoricheskii zhurnal (Saint Petersburg)

JUS

Journal of Ukrainian Studies

KS

Kievskaia starina

LNV

Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk

MUE

Materiialy do ukraïns’koï etnolohiï

NTE

Narodna tvorchist’ ta etnohrafiia

NZUVU

Naukovi zapysky Ukraïns’koho vil’noho universytetu

RA

Russkii arkhiv

RES

Revue des études slaves

RIZh

Russkii istoricheskii zhurnal

RL

Radians’ke literaturoznavstvo

RR

Russian Review

RS

Rocznik slawistyczny (Cracow)

SEEJ

Slavic and East European Journal

SEER

Slavic and East European Review

SO

Slavia Orientalis

SR

Slavic Review

TKDA

Trudy Kievskoi dukhovnoi akademii

UCE

Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia

UI

Ukraïns’kyi istoryk

UIZh

Ukraïns’kyi istorychnyi zhurnal

Ukh

Ukraïns’ka khata

ULH

Ukraïns’ka literaturna hazeta

UQ

Ukrainian Quarterly

UR

Ukrainian Review

URA

Ukraïns’ko-rus’kyi arkhiv

URE

Ukraïns’ka radians’ka entsyklopediia

VAN

Visnyk AN URSR

VDI

Vestnik drevnei istorii

ZchVV

Zapysky Chyna sv. Vasyliia Velykoho

ZhMNP

Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniia

ZhR

Zhyttia i revoliutsiia

ZIAN

Zapiski Imperatorskoi akademii nauk

ZIFV

Zapysky Istorychno-filolohichnoho viddilu VUAN

ZNTK

Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva v Kyievi

ZNTSh

Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka

ZSP

Zeitschrift für slavische Philologie


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