Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast)

Image - Bakhmut, now Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast), early 20th-century postcard. Image - Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast): city center. Image - Ivan Kavaleridze: monument to Fedor Artem (1923–4) in Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast).

Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast) or Artemivske [Артемівськ or Артемівське; Artemivs'k]. Map: DBII-4. City (2001 pop 83,000) under oblast administration in Donetsk oblast. Called Bakhmut until 1924, this is the largest centre of salt industry in Ukraine. Deposits in Artemivsk and surrounding areas yield gypsum, dolomite, chalk, and refractory clay. Mention of Artemivsk dates from 1571, when the Bakhmut guard (or Bakhmut Cossacks), on the orders of the government in Moscow, defended the saltworks from Tatar attack. In 1703 the fortress of Bakhmut was built on the orders of Tsar Peter I, and in 1783 Bakhmut became a county town of Katerynoslav gubernia. In 1782 the saltworks were closed because of competition with Black Sea salt. In 1870 development of the deposits of rock salt in the area surrounding Bakhmut was begun, and production has increased steadily ever since (21,000t in 1887 and nearly 4 million t in 1970, which constituted more than half of the total salt production in the USSR). (See Artemivsk rock salt deposits.) Industries in Artemivsk include the production of non-ferrous metals (since 1954 the main products have been copper and brass bars and sheets, firebrick, and ceramic tiles), the food industry (especially winemaking; a champagne distillery was built in 1950 and in 1970 produced 8.2 million bottles), and light industry. The All-Union Research Institute for the Salt Industry, an industrial association (Artemheolohiia), and museums of regional history and geology are found here.Volodymyr Kubijovyč

[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]




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