Epopee or epic. Usually a long narrative poem written in the ‘high’ or exalted style and recounting tales of gods or heroes, histories, and momentous events. The primary or original epics, representing the pure epic form, are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. These were first translated into Ukrainian by Stepan Rudansky and Petro Nishchynsky; however, successful translations were accomplished only in the latter half of the 20th century by Borys Ten. Panteleimon Kulish's ‘Ukraïna’ is considered to be an example of original epic poetry in 19th-century Ukrainian literature; however, the majority of Ukrainian epic poems, beginning with Taras Shevchenko's Haidamaky (The Haidamakas), modified the pure epic form, rejecting its exalted style and introducing elements of lyricism. An example of the modern epopee is Popil imperii (The Ashes of Empires) by Yurii Klen. Characteristic elements of the epic include thematic breadth and the use of epic repetition and extended (Homeric) similes and metaphors.