Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous oblast
Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous oblast [Карачево-Черкесская автономная область; Karachevo-Cherkeskaia avtonomnaia oblast]. An autonomous region in Stavropol krai, situated on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. Established in 1922, it existed until 1992. It had an area of 14,100 sq km and population of 417,560 (1989), consisting of Karachais (30 percent), Cherkessians (9 percent), Russians (45 percent), Abazinians (7 percent), Nogays (3 percent), Ukrainians, Greeks, and Ossetians. In 1926 there were 2,800 Ukrainians (0.4 percent of the population); in 1970 there were 4,800 (0.1 percent), of whom 68 percent were urban dwellers. The Cherkessians had their own national district in 1926–8 and autonomous oblast in 1928–57. In 1943 the Karachai oblast was eliminated. In 1944 the entire Karachai population was deported to Soviet Central Asia for alleged collaboration with the Germans in August 1942–January 1943. Many died in transit. In 1957 the Karachais were allowed to return to their homeland, and the Karachai-Cherkess Autonomous oblast was reinstated in 1957. In 1990 the oblast was disconnected from the Stavropol krai and in 1992 it was reorganized into the Karachai-Cherkess Republic.
[This article was updated in 2020.]