Marshal (marshalok). The title of several high state officials in the Polish Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. As early as the 13th century, the royal (koronnyi) marshal was the highest minister of the king. His deputy was called court (nadvornyi) marshal. From Poland the term spread to the Lithuanian court. The marshal of the land (marshalok zemskyi) was the highest official of the grand duke's court. He was in charge of etiquette at the court and in the diet. In the duke's absence he represented the ruler in the Council of Lords. He was assisted by the court (dvornyi) marshal, who headed the court servitors. The hospodarski marshals were lower government officials who also had some judicial responsibilities. In Russian-ruled Ukraine in the late 18th (after 1785) and in the 19th century, marshals were presidents of elected gubernial (see Gubernia) or county noble assemblies. They represented the local nobility before the tsar and Senate, and carried out some administrative functions at the local level.