IEU'S FEATURED TOPIC IN UKRAINIAN CULTURE AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY



THE UKRAINIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

The idea of a national Ukrainian academy of sciences was first broached by the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kyiv following the February Revolution of 1917. The project, however, was realized only in 1918 in much changed circumstances under the government of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky in the Ukrainian State. According to its statute, the academy was to be located in Kyiv and divided into three divisions: historical-philological, physical-mathematical, and social-economic. Its publications were to be in Ukrainian. The statute emphasized the all-Ukrainian character of the academy: not only citizens of the Ukrainian State but also Ukrainians of Western Ukraine, then a part of Austria-Hungary, could be full members. Prominent geochemist Volodymyr Vernadsky was the academy's first president. After the Bolsheviks assumed power in Ukraine, the academy was renamed the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1921. With the beginning of Ukrainization and the return of Mykhailo Hrushevsky from abroad in 1924, the academy expanded its work and published a number of first-rate historical and other scholarly and scientific works. However, beginning in 1928, the authorities increased their control over the academy by interfering directly and even brutally in its organization and scholarly work. Their purpose was to transform it into a Soviet institution imbued with the official ideology of Marxism-Leninism. Most of the institutions of the academy that were headed by Hrushevsky at the beginning of the 1930s were abolished, and the historian himself was deported to Moscow. In 1930-1 VUAN was 'purged' of many of its associates and all the academy's serial publications in the humanities were discontinued. The repressions against the academy reached a peak during Pavel Postyshev's regime in 1933-4. Over 250 research associates of the academy, including 22 academicians, were repressed in the 1930s, the largest number being in the humanities. After the German invasion of the USSR in 1941 the academy was evacuated to Ufa. It returned to Kyiv in 1944. In 1962 Borys Paton, a specialist in electric welding, became the academy's president. In the following year the academy was directly subordinated to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and reorganized on the pattern of its 'parent body.' The academy was reorganized again following Ukraine's proclamation of independence in 1991 and renamed the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine... Learn more about the history and current activities of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences by visiting the following entries:




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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UKRAINE. The highest institution of learning in Ukraine. As of 2016 the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NANU) is comprised of three sections--physical-technological and mathematical sciences; chemical and biological sciences; and social sciences and humanities--which unite fourteen branches of sciences: mathematics; information science; mechanics; physics and astronomy; earth sciences; physicotechnical problems and material science; physicotechnical problems in energetics; nuclear physics; chemistry; biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology; general biology; economics; history, philosophy, and law; literature, language, and art history. Five regional scientific centers are run jointly by the Academy and the Ministry of Education and Science, including Donetsk (now located in Kramatorsk), Western (Lviv), Southern (Odesa), Northeastern (Kharkiv), Dnipro region (Dnipro), and the Innovation center in Kyiv. The main elements of NANU's organizational structure continue to be the so-called scientific-research institutes and other research centers of a similar type. NANU also operates several national libraries, museums, and nature preserves and parks. It also runs a number of industrial enterprises, among them the so-called research plants, engineering and design departments, and computer centers. The structure of the academy encompasses 168 scientific institutes and 46 entities that combine research and manufacturing. The total number of employees working within NANU in 2016 was 37,447 individuals, among them 18,346 scientists, including 2,530 scientists with doctoral degrees and 7,603 with candidate degrees. NANU's membership includes 197 full members (academicians), 370 corresponding members, and 104 foreign members...

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine



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INSTITUTE OF THE HISTORY OF UKRAINE. Research institute established in 1936 out of various liquidated institutions of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (VUAN). The antecedents of the institute were the Historical Section and its chairs and commissions, and the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler in the VUAN historical-philological division. By 1924 the section had a Chair of Ukrainian History (directed by Mykhailo Hrushevsky) in Kyiv and another (directed by Dmytro Bahalii) in Kharkiv, and several other chairs. The invaluable work of all these institutions was cut short during the Stalinist terror of the early 1930s. Many historians were killed or sent to the GULAG; the historical-philological division was closed down; and virtually all research and publishing were halted. A Historical-Archeological Institute was established in 1934 to fight 'Ukrainian bourgeois historiography.' However, during the post-Stalin thaw in the 1960s the institute became one of the focal points of the Soviet Ukrainian cultural revival; a great deal of new research on Ukrainian history was conducted, and many fundamental Stalinist historiographic concepts were criticized and modified. After Ukraine gained independence in 1991, the institute became free of the Soviet ideological constraints. Today it consists of eleven departments and, since 1991, it has focused its research on the following topics: Kyivan Rus' and the Middle Ages; the social and cultural history of the early modern Ukraine; the Cossack Hetman State and its political legacy; the Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-21, the early Soviet period, and the Famine-Genocide of 1932-3; the history of Ukrainian intelligentsia and the dissident movement; and Ukraine during the Second World War...

Institute of the History of Ukraine



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INSTITUTE OF LITERATURE. A research institute where research on the history of Ukrainian literature, particularly on the works of Taras Shevchenko, is conducted and published. It was founded in Kharkiv in 1926 as the Taras Shevchenko Scientific Research Institute. During the first few years of the institute's existence, significant research on Shevchenko was carried out, but in the early 1930s his works began to be falsified to fit preconceived interpretations. From 1944 the institute has been the co-ordinating center for all literary studies in Soviet Ukraine. Possessing a huge collection of manuscripts (over 100,000), after the Second World War the institute published a series of 'collected' works by Ukraine's classical writer. The preparation of surveys and textbooks of Ukrainian literature has been a central function of the institute. Since the late 1980s the institute has prioritized the study of the early twentieth-century Ukrainian literature, especially the so-called Executed Renaissance, as well as the legacy of the Shistdesiatnyky generation and Soviet dissident poets. Numerous works of the writers who perished during the Stalinist terror or whose works were inaccessible to readers during Soviet rule have been republished. Over the years the institute has expanded significantly. As of 2017 it consists of seven sections: manuscript collections and textual criticisms; the history of Ukrainian literature; the twentieth-century Ukrainian literature and contemporary literary process; Taras Shevchenko studies; literary theory and comparative literature; world literature; and scholarly information. It also contains several scholarly centers, including that of American studies; German studies; Far Eastern studies; and fantasy fiction... Its official periodical is a monthly journal Slovo i chas...

Institute of Literature



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INSTITUTE OF PHILOSOPHY. Principal center for philosophical studies in Ukraine, founded in Kyiv in November 1946 to conduct and co-ordinate research in philosophy and to prepare specialists in the field. In the Soviet times the institute had 13 departments, some of which had little to do with philosophy, such as dialectical materialism, philosophical questions of scientific communism, scientific atheism, etc. In the 1960s to 1980s there has been a strong emphasis on research with an immediate practical application in education, the economy, or the building of a communist society. Its most important and interesting philosophical contributions were in the fields of philosophy of science and the history of philosophy in Ukraine. The institute's publication of scholarly editions of the collected works of Hryhorii Skovoroda and the translated works of Teofan Prokopovych, and some textbooks from philosophy courses given at the Kyivan Mohyla Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, have had a lasting significance for the history of philosophy. Since the late 1980s--early 1990s the institute has significantly broadened the areas of philosophical inquiry and become one of the leading intellectual venues in Ukraine. Specifically the history of philosophy in Ukraine has received a renewed attention from the institute's scholars. As of 2017 the institute has 8 departments: logic and methodology of science; philosophical anthropology; philosophical problems of natural sciences and ecology; social philosophy; philosophy of culture, ethics, and esthetics; history of philosophy in Ukraine; history of philosophy abroad; and philosophical problems of ethnicity and nationality. It also includes a section of religious studies. The institute's main periodical is Filosofs'ka dumka (since 1969)...

Institute of Philosophy



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INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS, FOLKLORE, AND ETHNOLOGY. A leading Ukrainian research institute founded in 1936 under the name the Institute of Ukrainian Folklore. It replaced several departments of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences abolished by the Stalinist regime. In the prewar Stalinist period its main focus was the collection and study of new 'Soviet' folklore and providing assistance to those who created it. After the Soviet occupation of Galicia, in November 1939 a branch of the institute was created out of the abolished Ethnographic Commission of the Shevchenko Scientific Society and headed by Filaret Kolessa. After the outbreak of the German-Soviet War, in July 1941 the institute was evacuated to Ufa, Bashkiria. In March 1944 it was substantially reorganized and re-established in Kyiv under the name Institute of Fine Arts, Folklore, and Ethnography under the directorship of Maksym Rylsky. During the Soviet period, the institute's policies and research were largely subject to non-scholarly, Soviet political considerations. In independent Ukraine after 1991 the institute's primary fields of research have been history and ethnography of Ukrainian culture; history and theory of professional and folk arts; and folklore and folk arts of foreign countries. The institute's scholars have conducted extensive folkloric and ethnographic research in various parts of Ukraine and also compiled an electronic database of Ukraine's ethnic cultures. Today the institute consists of the Ukrainian Ethnological Center and four departments: visual, decorative, and applied arts; Ukrainian and foreign folklore; musicology and ethnomusicology; cinema and theater arts and cultural studies...

Institute of Fine Arts, Folklore, and Ethnology



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INSTITUTE OF UKRAINIAN STUDIES. The institute was organized in Lviv in 1951 as the Institute of Social Sciences out of the Lviv branches of various institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR that had been established in 1940-1 in place of the Shevchenko Scientific Society dissolved by the Soviet government. During the cultural revival of the 1960s the institute became one of the main centers of interdisciplinary studies in western Ukraine, particularly in history of Ukraine, archeology, folklore, ethnography, and economics. It published a number of seminal monographs and collective works on the history of material culture, on ancient populations of Subcarpathia and Volhynia, on Ukrainian historical lexicology and lexicography, and on the archeology of Galicia. After suffering a decline during the repressions of the 1970s, the institute experienced a revival in the 1980s and particularly in the 1990s, after a noted historian Yaroslav Isaievych became head of the institute in 1989 and later, after the institute was reorganized in 1993 and assumed its present name. The institute consists of seven departments: archeology (including the Archeological Museum); the history of the Middle Ages; modern history of Ukraine; contemporary history, with a section devoted to the study of the Ukrainian national movement in the 20th century; Ukrainian literature; Ukrainian language; and the Center for the Study of Ukrainian-Polish relations. In recent decades the institute's scholars have published a number of important studies in the fields of Ukrainian history, archeology, cultural studies, and philology...

Institute of Ukrainian Studies


The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about the history and current activities of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences were made possible by the financial support of the W. K. LYPYNSKY EAST EUROPEAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE (USA).



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