Books in manuscript form appeared in Ukraine with the coming of Christianity in the second half of the 10th century. By the end of the 11th century original books were produced in Kyivan Rus'. They were artistically transcribed in the monasteries, principally in Kyiv. However, the book production rapidly increased only after the invention of printing, although the industry still required manual labor, making large printings impossible for several centuries. The publishing of printed books was developed in Ukraine in the second half of the 16th century. The more noted publishers of the late 16th and the 17th centuries included Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky (the Ostrih Press; from the early 1580s), the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood (from 1586), Bishop Hedeon Balaban (the Striatyn Press), Mykhailo Slozka in Lviv, the Kyivan Cave Monastery (from 1617), Archbishop Lazar Baranovych in Novhorod-Siverskyi (from 1674), and others. Only at the beginning of the 19th century, when the manual press was replaced by the printing machine, did book printing become an important branch of industry. However, by the end of the 18th century, Ukrainian publishing houses declined because of bans imposed by the Russian government on printing Ukrainian books. The Valuev circular of 1863 and the Ems Ukase of 1876 made it virtually impossible for anything to be published in Ukrainian within the Russian Empire. Apart from individual exceptions, works by Ukrainian authors were published elsewhere, mostly in Austrian-ruled Lviv and by other emigre publishing houses, such as Mykhailo Drahomanov's Ukrainian Press in Geneva. In Austrian-ruled Galicia there were no government proscriptions to contend with. The first sporadic attempts at book publishing occurred in the 1830s. The Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia publishing house was established in 1848. The Prosvita society began to publish in 1877, and the Russophile Kachkovsky Society in 1874. The 1860s to 1880s saw the emergence of full-time periodicals, as well as of publishing houses of various political parties and educational organizations, such as the Ridna Skola society or the Shevchenko Scientific Society (NTSh)... Learn more about the tradition of Ukrainian book publishing by visiting the following entries:


BOOK PUBLISHING. The first book in the modern Ukrainian language--Ivan Kotliarevsky's Eneida (Aeneid)--was printed in Saint Petersburg in 1798, and the first Ukrainian publication printed in Ukraine--Petro Hulak-Artemovsky's Solopii ta Khivriia--appeared in Kharkiv in 1819. By 1847 the works of Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnovianenko, Mykola Kostomarov, Kotliarevsky, and others (about 100 works in all) had been published in Kharkiv. From then on, however, the tsarist government imposed various restrictions and bans on Ukrainian publications. As a result, the number of books published in Ukrainian hardly increased: it rose from 3 in 1848 to 41 in 1862, and then fell to 5 by 1865 and 1870 as the result of Petr Valuev's circular. In 1875 the number rose to 30, only to fall again to 2 in 1877 as a result of the Ems Ukase. In 1880 not one Ukrainian-language book was published in Russian-ruled Ukraine. Given such repressive conditions under Russia, from the 1860s Galicia, and particularly Lviv, became increasingly the center of Ukrainian book publishing. As early as 1875 more books were published in Galicia than in Russian-ruled Ukraine. In 1894, 177 books were published in Galicia (136 in Lviv), compared to 30 in eastern and central Ukraine. After the Revolution of 1905 conditions under Russia eased somewhat, and, in 1913, 246 Ukrainian-language books were published. That same year 326 books appeared in Galicia (238 in Lviv). Thus, until the outbreak of the First World War, Galicia led Ukraine in the production of Ukrainian books. In Bukovyna books from Galicia were read, although in the 1870s local publishers began to produce general educational literature and belles lettres in Ukrainian...

Book publishing


PUBLISHERS AND PUBLISHING. The Ukrainian-Ruthenian Publishing Company, established in 1899 under the direction of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Ivan Franko, and Volodymyr Hnatiuk, played an important part in Galician publishing in the early 20th century. It issued many scholarly and popular works. The NTSh was also active at this time; it issued approximately 1,200 titles with reproductions. The Ukrainian struggle for independence (1917-20) revived publishing in Kyiv and other cities of central and eastern Ukraine in spite of adverse economic conditions. In central and eastern Ukraine 747 books were published in Ukrainian in 1917, and 1,084 in 1918, but only 665 in 1919 because of the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian White Army and Red Army. A completely new period in the history of Ukrainian book publishing began with the Soviet occupation of Ukraine and particularly in 1921, when the economy, including the book market, stabilized. By the mid-1920s all book production became concentrated in state publishing houses, mainly in the State Publishing House of Ukraine (DVU). Not only belles lettres but also books in every branch of science and technology were published on a large scale. A disproportionately high number of publications were devoted to political propaganda. During the years of Ukrainization the general production of books increased and the proportion of books in Ukrainian also increased, so that in 1930 it reached almost 80 percent. However, in the early 1930s, as a result of increasing government pressure, Ukraine's publishing industry was reorganized, the DVU was abolished, and the entire network of Soviet Ukrainian publishing houses was handed over to the central state publishing operation in Moscow...

Publishers and publishing


UKRAINIAN-RUTHENIAN PUBLISHING COMPANY. A publishing venture established as a joint stock company in 1899 in Lviv. Initiated by Mykhailo Hrushevsky, who also served as the first director, it published literary and scholarly works and literature in translation. The chief editors were Ivan Franko and Volodymyr Hnatiuk. In 1905 the company assumed responsibility for the publication of Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk from the Shevchenko Scientific Society. From 1907 to 1918 the company was based in Kyiv. Renewed in 1922 in Lviv as the Ukrainian Publishing Company, it continued to function until 1932, but its output at that time was minimal and of relatively little importance. By 1917 the company had issued over 300 books in two major series. Its belletristic series included original and reprinted works by Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Olha Kobylianska, Les Martovych, Vasyl Stefanyk, Marko Cheremshyna, Ivan Franko, Ivan Nechui-Levytsky, Marko Vovchok, and Bohdan Lepky, and translations of William Shakespeare, George Byron, Heinrich Heine, Knut Hamsun, Emile Zola, Guy de Maupassant, Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and others. Its popular-scholarly series included primarily translations of historical, sociological, and philosophical works...

Ukrainian-Ruthenian Publishing Company


STATE PUBLISHING HOUSE OF UKRAINE (DVU). The official publishing house of the Soviet Ukrainian state, founded by the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee in Kharkiv in May 1919. In the second half of the 1920s, DVU was the largest and most important publisher in Soviet Ukraine--it produced over half of all its books--and the second-largest publisher in the USSR. It played a major role in the implementation of the Ukrainization policy by publishing several hundred schoolbooks; several series of Ukrainian literary classics; works by contemporary Soviet Ukrainian authors; translations of European classics; political propaganda; sociopolitical, technical, and children's books; and 38 periodicals, including the literary journals Chervonyi shliakh, Zhyttia i revoliutsiia, Literaturnyi iarmarok, Nova generatsiia, and others. It also ran a Central Bibliographic Division (it became part of the Book Chamber of the Ukrainian SSR in 1922) and a network of 28 okruha branches, 75 bookstores, 15 kiosks, and 73 agencies. Its editorial staff included prominent writers, such as Mykola Khvylovy, Mykola Kulish, Petro Panch, Volodymyr Svidzinsky, and Pavlo Tychyna. From 1926 DVU came under increasing state control; in that year it was ordered by the CP(B)U Politburo to prepare and publish a scholarly edition of Vladimir Lenin's works and to increase its output of political propaganda for the masses. In the period 1920-8 DVU published 6,624 titles with a combined pressrun of 81,471,000; 4,487 of the titles were in Ukrainian and had a pressrun of 63,254,000 copies. In August 1930 DVU was replaced by the State Publishing Alliance of Ukraine (DVOU), and abolished in March 1934...

State Publishing House of Ukraine


NAUKOVA DUMKA. The publishing house of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kyiv. Founded in 1922 as part of the Editorial-Publishing Commission of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (VUAN), in 1927 it became the Publishing House of the VUAN. In 1964 it assumed its present name. The most important scholarly and academic publishing house in Ukraine, each year it has issued numerous monographs in the humanities and social, technical, and pure sciences; journals (52 in 1989); and serial publications (81 in 1989). It has released many important publications, including the history of Ukrainian literature (8 vols, 1967-71); a major Ukrainian dictionary (11 vols, 1970-80); academic editions of the collected works of Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko; Fauna Ukraïny (40 vols, 1956-), and many others. During the Soviet period, officially, as the publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Naukova Dumka was not subject to the usual Soviet censorship. In practice this meant little, and works issued by it generally conformed to the Party line and official dictates on scholarship. In the decades preceding the 1980s it was subject to increasing Russification, and most of its publications, especially in the natural and applied sciences, appeared in Russian. In the 1980s it published approximately 700 titles each year. The situation in the Naukova Dumka changed significantly with the lifting of censorship following the proclamation of Ukraine's independence in 1991. At the same time, with considerably limited funding, the publishing house greatly reduced the number of its publications...

Naukova Dumka


MUSEUM OF THE BOOK AND PRINTING IN UKRAINE. A state museum established in Kyiv in 1972 (International Year of the Book), as the State Museum of the Book and Book Printing, and opened to the public in 1975. A precursor to the museum, the Museum of Ukrainian Writing and Printing, was founded in 1924 and shut down by the Stalinist authorities in 1934. The museum is housed on the grounds of the National Kyivan Cave Historical-Cultural Preserve in a former building of the Kyivan Cave Monastery Press that was built in the early 17th century. The museum's collection contains some 56,000 items. Its approximately 3,000 exhibits in five halls chronicle the development of book writing, printing and book publishing in Ukraine. Facsimiles and original copies of rare medieval manuscripts, old printed books, and incunabula, examples of early and modern printing technology, first editions of 19th- and 20th-century Ukrainian books and other publications, and original book illustrations and bookplates are on display. An illustrated guidebook to the museum was published in 1981. Rare books printed by the Kyivan Cave Monastery Press, Ostrih Press, Lviv Dormition Brotherhood Press, Chernihiv Press, Striatyn Press, and other presses are on display. A new exhibition of bookplate art (over 1,000 works by more than 200 artists, including Heorhii Narbut, Olena Kulchytska, Yaroslava Muzyka, and Stefaniia Gebus-Baranetska) was opened in 1987...

Museum of the Book and Printing of Ukraine

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