IEU'S FEATURED TOPIC IN UKRAINIAN CULTURE AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY



THE CULTURAL LEGACY OF KYIVAN MOHYLA ACADEMY

Established in 1632, Kyivan Mohyla Academy developed into the leading center of higher education in 17th- and 18th-century Ukraine, which exerted a significant intellectual influence over the entire Orthodox world. In founding the school, Metropolitan Petro Mohyla's purpose was to master the intellectual skills and learning of contemporary Europe and to apply them to the defense of the Orthodox faith. Taking his most dangerous adversary as the model, he adopted the organizational structure, the teaching methods, and the curriculum of the Jesuit schools. Unlike other Orthodox schools, which emphasized Church Slavonic and Greek, Mohyla's college gave primacy to Latin and Polish. This change was a victory for the more progressive churchmen, who appreciated the political and intellectual importance of these languages. From its beginnings, the academy had close ties with the Cossack starshyna, which provided it with moral and material support. The school, in turn, educated the succeeding generation of the service elite. Among the academy's students were the future hetmans Ivan Vyhovsky, Ivan Samoilovych, Pavlo Teteria, Ivan Mazepa, and Pavlo Polubotok. Many of the most accomplished Ukrainian intellectuals, authors, and churchmen of the time served on the school's faculty, and some of them played instrumental roles in Peter I's educational reforms. Among the academy's most famous students was the renown philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda. The academy was closed down by the tsarist authorities in 1817, and two years later the Kyiv Theological Academy was opened in its place. In 1991 Kyivan Mohyla Academy was formally revived as a national university and in 1992 it opened its doors to students on its historic campus... Learn more about the history and cultural legacy of Kyivan Mohyla Academy by visiting the following entries:




KYIVAN MOHYLA ACADEMY. Established by Petro Mohyla through the merger of the Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood School (est 1615-16) with the Kyivan Cave Monastery School (est 1631 by Mohyla), the new school was conceived by its founder as an academy, ie, an institution of higher learning offering philosophy and theology courses and supervising a network of secondary schools. Completing the Orthodox school system, it was to compete on an equal footing with Polish academies run by the Jesuits. Fearing such competition, King Wladyslaw IV Vasa granted the school the status of a mere college or secondary school, and prohibited it from teaching philosophy and theology. It was only in 1694 that Kyivan Mohyla College (Collegium Kijoviense Mohileanum) was granted the full privileges of an academy, and only in 1701 that it was recognized officially as an academy by Tsar Peter I. Supported generously by Hetman Samoilovych (1672-87), the school began to flourish towards the end of his rule, and during Hetman Ivan Mazepa's reign (1687-1709), enjoyed its golden age. The enrollment at the time exceeded 2,000. The Moscow academy was patterned after the Kyivan one and numerous Russian schools were organized by bishops who were graduates of the Kyiv academy...

Kyivan Mohyla Academy



MOHYLA, PETRO, b 10 January 1597 in Moldavia, d 11 January 1647 in Kyiv. Ukrainian metropolitan, noble, and cultural figure; son of Simeon, hospodar of Wallachia (1601-2) and Moldavia (1606-7), and the Hungarian princess Margareta. After his father's murder in 1607, Mohyla and his mother sought refuge in Western Ukraine. He was tutored by teachers of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood School, and pursued higher education in theology at the Zamostia Academy and in Netherlands and France. After his return to Ukraine he entered the military service and fought as an officer in the Battle of Cecora (1620) and Battle of Khotyn (1621). In 1621-7 he received estates in the Kyiv region and became interested in affairs of the Ukrainian Orthodox church. In 1627 he became archimandrite of the influential Kyivan Cave Monastery. In 1632 the Orthodox deputies in the Polish Sejm nominated Mohyla the metropolitan of Kyiv. He was consecrated on 7 May 1633. As metropolitan Mohyla improved the organizational structure of the Orthodox church in Ukraine, reformed the monastic orders, and enriched the theological canon. He gathered together a circle of scholars and cultural leaders known as the Mohyla Atheneum, which produced an impressive corpus of theological scholarship...

Mohyla, Petro



PROKOPOVYCH, TEOFAN, b 18 June 1681 in Kyiv, d 19 September 1736 in Saint Petersburg. Orthodox archbishop, writer, scholar, and philosopher. He graduated from Kyivan Mohyla Academy in 1696 and continued his education in Lithuania, Poland, and in Rome. In 1704 he returned to the Mohyla Academy to teach poetics, rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. He also served as prefect from 1708 and rector in 1711-16. He gained prominence as a writer and as a supporter of Hetman Ivan Mazepa. His most famous work, Vladimir, is dedicated to the hetman, whom he depicted as the figure of the Grand Prince of Kyiv. Following Mazepa's unsuccessful revolt against Tsar Peter I in 1709, however, Prokopovych denounced him and expressed his complete allegiance to Peter. He became a favorite of Peter's and was called to Saint Petersburg to be a preacher and adviser to the tsar. He was consecrated bishop (1718) and then archbishop (1720) of Pskov, was appointed vice-president of the new Holy Synod in 1721, and finally was made archbishop of Novgorod in 1725. In the 1720s Prokopovych played a crucial role in the reform of the Russian Orthodox church. He supported the liquidation of the position of patriarch and the creation of the Holy Synod under the direct authority of the tsar...

Teofan Prokopovych



YAVORSKY, STEFAN, b 1658 in Yavoriv, Galicia, d 27 November 1722 in Moscow. Orthodox hierarch, theologian, poet, and philosopher. A graduate of Kyivan Mohyla College (ca 1684), he completed his education in Polish Jesuit colleges. After returning to Kyiv in 1687, he renounced Catholicism, became an Orthodox monk (1689), and taught rhetoric (1690), philosophy (1691-3), and theology (1693-8) at Kyivan Mohyla Academy. He was hegumen of Saint Nicholas's Monastery in Kyiv from 1697; in 1700 he was appointed metropolitan of Riazan and Murom in Muscovy, and on 1 December 1701, exarch in Moscow of the Russian Orthodox church, by Tsar Peter I. Yavorsky helped Peter to reform the church and education. Eventually his defense of church autonomy, criticism of Peter, opposition to Teofan Prokopovych, and intolerance of Protestantism cost him the tsar's favor. In 1712 he was forbidden to preach, and in 1718 he was forced to live in Saint Petersburg and subjected to constant harassment and political inquiry. In 1721 Peter appointed him president of the Holy Synod, an institution Yavorsky abhorred. Yavorsky's major work is the anti-Protestant dogmatic treatise Kamen' very ... (The Faith's Rock ...), written 1718 and published 1728...

Stefan Yavorsky



SKOVORODA, HRYHORII, b 3 December 1722 in Chornukhy, Lubny regiment, d 9 November 1794 in Pan-Ivanivka, Kharkiv vicegerency. Philosopher and poet. He was educated at Kyivan Mohyla Academy (1734-53, with two interruptions). He sang in Empress Elizabeth I's court Kapelle in Saint Petersburg (1741-4), served as music director at the Russian imperial mission in Tokai, Hungary (1745-50), and taught poetics at Pereiaslav College (1751). He resumed his studies at the Kyivan academy, but left after completing only two years of the four-year theology course. He later taught at Kharkiv College. After his dismissal from the college Skovoroda spent the rest of his life wandering about eastern Ukraine, particularly Slobidska Ukraine. Material support from friends enabled him to devote himself to reflection and writing. Although there is no sharp distinction between his literary and philosophical works, his collection of 30 verses titled The Garden of Divine Songs, his dozen or so songs, his 30 fables, and his letters, written mostly in Latin, are generally grouped under the former category. Some of his songs and poems became widely known and became part of Ukrainian folklore. His philosophical works consist of a treatise and 12 philosophical dialogues...

Hryhorii Skovoroda



NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF KYIV MOHYLA ACADEMY. A national coeducational research university in Kyiv. In 1991, by the ordinance of the head of the Supreme Council of Ukraine, the historical Kyivan Mohyla Academy was officially 'reestablished' on its 'historical territory as an independent institution of higher learning' under the name University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. The university was officially opened in August 1992, with literature specialist Viacheslav Briukhovetsky appointed as its 'organizing rector.' Briukhovetsky was the university's first elected president (acting from 1994 to 2007) and is generally considered to be the institution's 'founding father.' On 19 May 1994 by the decree of President Leonid Kravchuk, the university was granted the status of a national institution of higher learning and it assumed its present name. NaUKMA is a member of the European University Association. The teaching at the university is conducted both in Ukrainian and English. From its early days, the revived 'Kyivan Mohyla Academy' has firmly established itself as a leading university in Ukraine, patterned on North American academic models and generally considered the least corrupt of all classical universities in the country...

National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy


The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries associated with the history and cultural legacy of Kyivan Mohyla Academy were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



ABOUT IEU: Once completed, the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine will be the most comprehensive source of information in English on Ukraine, its history, people, geography, society, economy, and cultural heritage. With close to 20,000 detailed encyclopedic entries supplemented with thousands of maps, photographs, illustrations, tables, and other graphic and/or audio materials, this immense repository of knowledge is designed to present Ukraine and Ukrainians to the world.

At present, only 52% of the entire planned IEU database is available on the IEU site. New entries are being edited, updated, and added daily. However, the successful completion of this ambitious and costly project will be possible only with financial assistance from IEU supporters. Become an IEU supporter and help the CIUS in creating the world's most authoritative electronic information resource about Ukraine and Ukrainians!


Go To Top Of Page


Click Home to get to the IEU Home page; to contact the IEU editors click Contact.
To learn more about IEU click About IEU and to view the list of donors and to become an IEU supporter click Donors.



©2001 All Rights Reserved. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.