Hornbeam (Carpinus; Ukrainian: hrab). Popular name for species of deciduous trees, less commonly bushes, belonging to the genus Carpinus, of the birch (Betulaceae) family. Hornbeams have smooth, gray bark, short trunks, and horizontally growing branches with ovate and double-toothed leaves. They are hardy, slow-growing trees that are used for loom shuttles, parquet floors, musical instruments, tools, fuel, and as an ornamental in parks and gardens. Two species of hornbeam occur in Ukraine: the European hornbeam (C. betulus), which is found predominantly in Right-Bank Ukraine, the Carpathian Mountains, and Crimea; and the eastern or little hornbeam (C. orientalis), also found in Crimea.
Encyclopedia of Ukraine