Zmiiv. Map: IV-17. Town (2001 pop 17,063), a raion center in Kharkiv oblast. Between 1976 and 1990 it was called Hotvald in honor of the Czech Communist leader Klement Gottwald. Zmiiv was first mentioned in the 12th century as the Zmiiske fortified settlement. Used by Prince Ihor Sviatoslavych of Novhorod-Siverskyi in his struggle with the Cumans, it was later destroyed by the Mongols. In the mid-1500s an outpost was built there, and in the 1650s the Cossacks built a fort there to defend the vicinity against the Tatars. Zmiiv was a company town of the Kharkiv regiment from 1669 to 1765. It was ravaged by the Tatars in 1688, 1689, and 1692. Its Cossacks took part in the uprisings led by Ivan Dzykovksy (1670) and Kodratii Bulavin (1707–9). The Saint Nicholas monastery was located nearby from 1688 to 1788. Later Zmiiv was a county town in Slobidska Ukraine gubernia (1797–1835) and Kharkiv gubernia (1836–1920). It became a raion center in 1923. It has a food industry, and machines, containers, paper products, and building materials are manufactured there.

[This article was updated in 2006.]

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