Surma (1927–34) («Сурма»; Clarion). An underground monthly organ of the Ukrainian Military Organization and, from 1929, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). It was printed secretly in Berlin (1927–8) and then Kaunas, Lithuania (1928–34), from which copies were smuggled and mailed into Western Ukraine and distributed free of charge. Initially the journal was edited by I. Gyzha (no. 1) and Omelian Senyk (nos 2–3); from the fourth issue the chief editor was Volodymyr Martynets. At first Surma published political and ideological articles by nationalist leaders such as Martynets, Yevhen Konovalets, Riko Jary, O. Senyk, and S. Chuchman. After the formation of the OUN in 1929, it devoted most attention to military topics, and featured articles on military tactics and theory by Roman Sushko, V. Kolosovsky, Viktor Kurmanovych, Mykola Kapustiansky, and others.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 5 (1993).]