Circle of Ukrainians in Paris
Circle of Ukrainians in Paris (Cercle des Oukrainiens à Paris or Українська громада в Парижі; Ukrainska hromada v Paryzhi). First Ukrainian organization in Paris, established in 1908 by political émigrés who had left the Russian Empire after the Revolution of 1905 and by students from Galicia. By 1910 the organization had 120 members, maintained a choir, had organized Ukrainian language courses, and had published informational brochures on Ukraine. Among its leading members were Yaroslav Fedorchuk, Mykhailo Parashchuk, Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Oleksander Kovalenko, Evhen Batchinsky, Mykhailo Rudnytsky, and Mykhailo Boichuk. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 the circle ceased its activity.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]