Executive committee (vykonavchyi komitet or vykonkom). Soviet administrative executive body of a territorial unit. In the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee governed the republic until 1936, along with gubernia (later okruha and then oblast), county and volost (later raion), city, and rural executive committees (see Administrative territorial division). Later there were oblast, city, raion, town (smt), and rural executive committees. Their members were elected by the deputies of soviets at the respective levels. In rural areas only the larger soviets elected executive committees. The work of the committees was strictly centralized. Their departments and agencies were formally subject to a dual hierarchy—to their respective soviets and to the special departments of the higher executive committees. In fact they were completely subordinate to the committees of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]