Neolithic Period. The closing phase of the Stone Age, lasting in Ukraine from ca 5000 to 2500 BC. The Neolithic Period was characterized by the development of agriculture and pottery manufacturing, the establishment of sedentary agriculturally based settlements, the use of polishing techniques for stone tools, the emergence of increasingly complex systems of religious belief, and the growth of tribal social orders. This epoch was also marked by the existence of a greater diversity of cultures than in either the Paleolithic Period or Mesolithic Period. By far the most developed culture was the agrarian Trypilian culture, which existed throughout most of Right-Bank Ukraine until the Bronze Age. Other groups that existed during this period include the Pitted-Comb Pottery culture, the Serednii Stih culture, the Boh-Dniester culture, and the Tisza culture. The Neolithic Period ended with the introduction of metal technology during the Eneolithic Period or the Bronze Age.
Danilenko, V. Neolit Ukrainy (Kyiv 1969)
Arkheolohiia Ukraïns’koï RSR, vol 1 (Kyiv 1971)
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 3 (1993).]