Pine (Pinus; Ukrainian: sosna). A genus of the family Pinaceae, normally tall evergreen conifers (up to 50 m high) and occasionally spreading shrubs. Pines occupy about 2.5 million ha of land in Ukraine, 34 percent of all forest land. Predominantly pine forests are widely spread in the forest and forest-steppe belts and in the mountain forest zones of Ukraine (Polisia, the Buh Depression, and the Sian Lowland). Pines rarely grow in the steppe zone. Of the nine species of Pinus found in Ukraine, the most prevalent is the common or Scots pine (P. silvestris). The trees live hundreds of years and require full sun and clean air. Pinewood is used for making masts, poles, interior construction lumber, furniture, plywood, and paper, and is burned as fuel. Pine yields a gum used in the production of turpentine, pitch, tar, and resin. Pine needles yield vitamin C and essential oils. Mountain pine (P. mugo) is used as a cover for rocky spills, to strengthen steep slopes, to prevent washouts and landslides, and to protect against flash floods. Chalk pine (P. cretaceae) is found along the Donets River; European cedar pine (P. cembra) and juniper grow in the Carpathian Mountains; and P. pallasiana, P. stankeviczi, P. zerovii, and P. rostellata are common in Crimea.