Trud [Труд; Labor]. A women’s manufacturing co-operative founded in 1901 in Lviv by the Club of Ruthenian Women. Until 1914 it was known as the Women’s Manufacturing Association. Trud owned a building and maintained a student residence and workshops for making dresses and undergarments. It organized sewing courses for girls over 13 years of age, which in 1929 were replaced with a three-year trade school, directed by Olena Zalizniak. Similar women’s co-operatives existed in 11 other cities in Galicia. In 1927 they held a congress in Lviv. The board of directors of Trud was headed by Hermina Shukhevych and Yevheniia Makarushka. The co-operative ceased operations during the Soviet occupation in 1939–41 and was dissolved by the Soviet authorities in 1944.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 5 (1993).]