Beech (Fagus; Ukrainian: buk). A tree of the beech family, 30–40 m in height. It is discriminating about soil and climate and requires much atmospheric moisture. The beech grows only in Western Ukraine and the Crimea, mixed in with other trees: in the Carpathian Mountains it grows alongside fir, spruce, as well as hornbeam, maple, ash, and elm. In certain regions, particularly in Transcarpathia, beech forests are found. In the Carpathians the tree grows at altitudes up to 1,300 m. Beech wood is dense and has a reddish-brown color. It is used for firewood, tools, musical instruments, railway ties, parquet floors, bent furniture, and dry distillation in the chemical industry.