Raiky fortified settlement
Raiky fortified settlement (Райковецьке городище; Raikovetske horodyshche). A Rus’ fortress town on the Hnylopiat River near Raiky, Berdychiv raion, Zhytomyr oblast. It was excavated in 1929–35 by Teodosii Molchanivsky and in 1946–7 by V. Honcharov. Raiky was one of a series of fortified outposts along the steppe frontier of Kyivan Rus’. It occupied a territory of 1.25 ha and was surrounded by a deep (7 m) moat and earthen walls with towers. Excavations revealed the remains of 52 dwellings and a variety of tools used in agriculture, iron production (from local iron ore deposits), metalworking, jewelry making, and ceramics production. The town was destroyed in 1241 by the Mongols; the remains of those who died defending the settlement were found in the stronghold.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 4 (1993).]