Alphabet (azbuka). The modern Ukrainian alphabet consists of 33 letters; its present form is the result of a long evolution of the Cyrillic alphabet. Specifically, in the 18th century, the Cyrillic alphabet was reformed into the Hrazhdanka alphabet, which underwent further, secondary changes, providing the basis for the various writing systems. (See also Drahomanivka, Maksymovychivka, Zhelekhivka, Kulishivka, Pankevychivka, Yaryzhka alphabet, and Orthography.)

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