Iconography [Іконографія]. A study that identifies, describes, classifies, and interprets symbols, themes, and subject matter in the visual arts. It originated in Europe in the 16th century, when it concentrated on collecting emblems and symbols from classical literature. Viewed as a handmaid of archeology, in the 18th century it consisted of the classification of subjects in ancient monuments. In the next century it became independent of archeology and concentrated mostly on the use and meaning of symbols in Christian art. In Ukraine, iconographical studies of saints venerated by Ukrainians were published by Mykola Batih, Teodor Bilous, Mykhailo Dragan, Mykola Holubets, Sviatoslav Hordynsky, Damian Horniatkevych, Petro Kholodny, N. Kondakov, Yaroslav Konstantynovych, Liudmyla Miliaieva, Rev Yu. Mokrytsky, Mykhailo Osinchuk, Hryhorii Pavlutsky, Volodymyr Peshchansky, Rev P. Pavlyk, Kostiantyn Shyrotsky, Marian Sokołowski, Mykola Sumtsov, Ilarion Svientsitsky, Vira Svientsitska, and Pavlo Zholtovsky.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 2 (1988).]