Radio technology

Radio technology. Radio technological research in Ukraine originated with Mykola Pylchykov at Odesa University and Kharkiv Technological Institute, M. Umov at Odesa University, and Dmytro Rozhansky at Kharkiv University. Pylchykov oversaw the installation of a research radio station at the Kherson lighthouse and did experiments in radiotelecontrol. In 1906 M. Bonch-Bruevich in Kyiv invented an original radio transmitter. In the 1920s, radio-technological research was conducted by M. Papaleksi at Odesa Polytechnical Institute (in the areas of radiotelegraphy, radio communications with submarines, and telecontrol) and by Volodymyr Ohiievsky at Kyiv Polytechnical Institute. In 1924 in Kharkiv Ohiievsky set up the first radio station in Ukraine. Scientists at Kharkiv University, and then at Lviv University and other higher educational institutions, developed interest and research in the field.

In late 20th century radio technology research was conducted by the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in Kharkiv, and the Kyiv Institute of Radio-technological Problems. Abram Slutskin, Semen Braude, I. Truten, and H. Levin studied powerful superfrequency generators and the theory of the magnetron. Semen Tetelbaum and Oleksandr Usykov investigated the remote transmission of energy over long distances, new modulation methods, television, radiolocation, the electronics of superfrequencies, and the phase method of generating radio waves. Vadym Lashkarov and Solomon Pekar developed the theory and technology of semiconductors, electron diffraction, and the kinetics of photoconduction. Oleksander Kotelnykov devoted attention to the technology of weak currents, electrodynamics, and the theory of long lines. At the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR Braude researched the reflection of radio waves from meteor tracks and other problems of radio astronomy. Along with Issak Ostrovsky, I. Turgenev, and A. Men he also contributed to understanding of the propagation of radio waves in the troposphere and to the development of radio oceanography. Volodymyr Marchenko and Viktor Shestopalov studied the diffraction of radio waves, and Naum Morgulis specialized in electron emission. New research methods in nonlinear mechanics, quantum field theory, and quantum radio technology developed by Nikolai Bogoliubov, Mykola Krylov, and A. Chernets were useful in the development of theoretical radio technology. The quarterly Radiotekhnika and the interdepartmental collection Radiotekhnik were devoted to problems of radio technology. Some articles in the field appeared in the journal Radio (1930–41).

Lubomyr Onyshkevych

[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 4 (1993).]

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