Scientific research institutes
Scientific research institutes (науково-дослідні інститути; naukovo-doslidni instytuty, or НДІ; NDI). Research institutions that function independently or are part of scientific academies, scholarly societies, universities, other postsecondary schools, governmental bodies, or international agencies. In Soviet Ukraine most NDI were established in the 1920s. The overwhelming majority were located in Kharkiv (Soviet Ukrainian sources  list 43, whereas émigré Ukrainian sources contend there were 93), Kyiv (21 vs 69), and Odesa (7 vs 42). Others were located in Dnipropetrovsk (2), Poltava (2), and Makiivka, and (according to émigré sources) Vinnytsia and Chernihiv. Scientific research chairs and certain commissions, committees, and cabinets of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (VUAN) functioned in the same way as NDI, and most of them were reorganized into NDI in the late 1920s and early 1930s (14 in 1933, 21 in 1935).
Many NDI were established after the Second World War. By the 1980s over 60 had become part of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Hundreds of others were subordinated to the USSR academies of Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, and Medical Sciences, various all-Union and republican ministries and agencies, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, and several international scientific organizations. (For information on individual Soviet Ukrainian institutes, see entries beginning with ‘Institute ...,’ ‘Scientific Research Institute ...,’ ‘Ukrainian Institute ...,’ and ‘Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute ...’)
In the West the role of Ukrainian NDI was performed during the interwar period by the Ukrainian Sociological Institute in Vienna (1919–24), the Ukrainian Institute of Sociology in Prague (1924–32), the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Berlin (1926–45) and the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Warsaw (1930–9). In the postwar period the Shevchenko Scientific Society’s Encyclopedia of Ukraine Institute in Munich (est 1947) and then in Sarcelles, France, the Research Institute of Volyn in Winnipeg (est 1951), the Scientific Theological Institute of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA in South Bound Brook, New Jersey, the Ukrainian Military History Institute in Toronto (1952–69), the Lypynsky East European Research Institute in Philadelphia (est 1963), the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute (est 1973), the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies in Edmonton and Toronto (est 1976), and the Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Centre (est 1982) have functioned as NDI.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 4 (1993).]