Busha [Буша; Buša]. Map: V-9. Village (2005 pop 847) near Yampil (Vinnytsia oblast), situated on the Murafa River in eastern Podilia. In the mid-17th century it was a fortress of the Bratslav regiment. (The remains of the fortress have been preserved.) During the Cossack-Polish War, in February and March 1654 Polish forces attacked Busha, and finally a 60,000-strong army captured it in November. Captains Hrechka and Zavysny commanded the defense of several thousand Cossacks. After their deaths Zavysny's spouse, Maria, set fire to the magazine, perishing together with many of the attackers. The Poles slew almost all the inhabitants. These events were popularized in Ukrainian literature by Mykhailo Starytsky in the play Oborona Bushi (The Defense of Busha) and the short novel Obloha Bushi (The Siege of Busha).

The Busha Historical and Cultural Reserve, located in the village, features four archeological sites dating from the times of the Trypilian culture, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and the Scythian period; a 5th-century pagan (later Christian) temple; remnants of the fortress with a town hall; and an old cemetary. The Haidamatskyi Yar Nature Reserve is situated in the vicinity of Busha.

[This article was updated in 2013.]

Encyclopedia of Ukraine