Academic Circle (Akademicheskii kruzhok). A Russophile student society in Lviv founded in 1870. In 1876 it merged with the Galician populist circle Druzhnyi Lykhvar, but a year later reverted to a Russophile orientation. Among its leading members were Ivan Franko, Mykhailo Pavlyk, and Ostap Terletsky. The society's organ was Druh (1874–7).
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]