Morphology. The part of grammar dealing with the internal structure of words and their elements (morphemes), inflection (person, tense, and case), and derivation (the formation of new words from existing ones). In the Ukrainian language, morphemes are divided into roots, prefixes, suffixes, and endings. The first three are used in word formation, and the last two are used with words in a sentence. Books on Ukrainian morphology have been written by Vasyl Ilin (prefixes, 1953), M. Ivchenko (numerals, 1955), Stepan Bevzenko (inflection and word formation, 1960), A. Kolodiazhny (prepositions, 1960), I. Chaplia (adverbs, 1960), Illia Kucherenko (1961), I. Matviias (1962), A. Medushevsky (1962), E. Sasynovych (gerunds, 1963), Stepan Samiilenko (2 vols, 1964, 1970), L. Kots (gerunds, 1964), Ivan M. Kernytsky (inflection, 1967), Ivan Bilodid (ed, 1969), C. Bidwell (1971), Mykhailo Zhovtobriukh (ed, 1975), Stepan Bevzenko, A. Hryshchenko, et al (historical morphology, 1978), H. Arpolenko (numerals, 1980), K. Horodenska (derivation, 1981), M. Hnatiuk (participles, 1982), M. Leonova (morphology textbook, 1983), and O. Bezpoiasko and K. Horodenska (morphemes, 1987).
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 3 (1993).]