Horlivka [Горлівка]. Map: DBIII-4. City (2013 pop 256,714) under oblast jurisdiction in Donetsk oblast 40 km from Donetsk, one of the most important anthracite-mining and industrial centers in the Donets Basin, and a railway and highway junction. Founded beginning in the mid-18th century as the villages of Hosudariv Bairak, Mykytivka, Zaitseve, and Zalizna, it is named after a Russian mining engineer, Petr Gorlov, who built the first coal mine there in 1867. By the early 20th century the mining settlement had developed into an important industrial center. From 10,000 inhabitants in 1898, its population grew to 30,000 in 1916, 23,100 in 1926, and 181,500 in 1939. Horlivka was devastated during the Second World War, but by 1959 its population had grown to 308,000 (46 percent of which consisted of Ukrainians and 48 percent of Russians). Since 1970 its coal industry has not expanded (until then over 10 million t of coal was produced annually); consequently its population has been declining since 1970.
Of Horlivka's nine anthracite mines, several are among the largest in the Donbas: the Lenin, Kindrativka-Nova, Kocheharka, Komsomolets, and Gagarin mines. Also located there are five mineral-enrichment factories, the Styrol chemicals trust, a coke-chemicals plant, the Horlivka Machine-Building Plant (one of the largest coal-mining-machine manufacturers in the former USSR), four mechanical repair plants, the Mykytivka mercury deposit and dolomite plant, and the Panteleimonivka refractory-materials plant. Its food industry (meat-processing industry, dairy industry, wine-making industry), clothing industry, cloth furnishings industry, woodworking industry, and building-materials industry are all well developed. Among its educational institutions are a pedagogical university of foreign languages (English and French), a branch of the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, seven special secondary schools, 8 vocational-technical schools. Horlivka has an art museum, the Horlivka Museum of Miniature Books, and three theaters. The city is divided into three city raions.
[This article was updated in 2014.]