Zemlia i volia
Zemlia i volia (Land and Freedom). A weekly (later semimonthly and then irregular) organ of the Ukrainian Social Democratic party, published in Chernivtsi in 1906 and in Lviv in 1907–13, 1919–20, and 1922–4. It was edited in 1906 by M. Ogrodnik; in 1907–13 by Mykola Hankevych, Volodymyr Levynsky, Semen Vityk, Volodymyr Starosolsky, Yuliian Bachynsky, and Porfyr Buniak; and in 1919–22 by M. Filts, Buniak, Ivan Kvasnytsia, and Antin Chernetsky. From the fall of 1923 it was controlled by a group of supporters of Oleksander Shumsky, a prominent leader of the CP(B)U, and edited by Stepan Volynets. The newspaper was closed down by the Polish authorities in January 1924, after it openly voiced support for the platform of the Comintern.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 5 (1993).]