Kramatorsk [Краматорськ; Kramators'k]. Map: DBII-3. City (2014 pop 162,811) in Donetsk oblast, situated on the Kazennyi Torets River, a tributary of the Donets River. It is one of the largest centers of the heavy machine-building industry in Ukraine and an important railway junction linking Lozova, Popasna, Rostov-na-Donu, Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast), and Krasnyi Lyman. Kramatorsk arose in the second half of the 19th century, when a station of the Kursk–Azov railway was established on the city’s present site and the town grew up around it. Over time, several settlements established in the late 18th century were incorporated into the new town. The city grew as the entire Donets Basin was developed. In 1896 a German firm opened a factory to produce machinery for the mining and railway industries (now the Old Kramatorsk Machine-Building Plant). By 1914 the city had 4,000 inhabitants. Its population grew quickly with the industrialization of the entire region, reaching 12,000 in 1926, 93,000 in 1939, and 115,000 in 1959. The large New Kramatorsk Machine-Building Plant was opened in 1934. Today the city's industries produce equipment for metallurgy, the coal industry, mining, the heavy-machine-tool-building industry and the building materials industry (cement, slate, and slagwood). The coke-chemical industry, casting and forging, the food industry, and light industry are also developed. Kramatorsk has a scientific-research and technological-planning institute of machine building, the Donbas Machine-Building Academy, the Donbas Institute of Technology and Management, Kramatorsk Institute of Economy and the Humanities as well as two museums.
[This article was updated in 2014.]