Bibliography (bibliohrafiia). Bibliographic work in Ukraine originated in the compiling of indexes of books that should be read and of books that should not be read. Such an index appears in the Izbornik of Sviatoslav (1073), which, however, was not compiled but only copied in Ukraine. Ukrainian books started to appear in indexes in the 15th century, at which time the first known book catalog of a monastic library was prepared as well. With the introduction of printing, indexes of works and book-price catalogs were compiled and published. Indexes of recommended works and library catalogs grew in number and size in the 17th century, when subject bibliographies, such as a musical bibliography published in Lviv in 1697, also started to appear.
After the Battle of Poltava in 1709 book publishing in Ukraine was restricted. As Ukraine's political and cultural independence was being steadily eroded, many Ukrainian scholars served the Russian Empire. Some of them, like Mykola Bantysh-Kamensky and Vasyl Anastasevych, became pioneers of Russian bibliography. Since Russian bibliographers included Ukrainian books in their bibliographies, the works of V. Sopikov, I. Karataev, and V. Undolsky can be considered important contributions to the bibliography of Ukrainian books published before 1865.
One of the founders of modern Ukrainian bibliography was Mykhailo Maksymovych, author of Knizhnaia starina iuzhnorusskaia (South Russian Book Antiquity, 1849–50) and other bibliographies. Another significant contributor was Yakiv Holovatsky, author of Dopolneniia k ocherku slaviano-russkoi bibliografii V.M. Undol'skogo (Additions to the Outline of the Slavic-Russian Bibliography by V.M. Undolsky, 1874). Holovatsky also prepared several other bibliographies, including ‘Bibliohrafiia halytsko-ruskaia s 1772–1848 hoda’ (Galician-Ruthenian Bibliography from 1772 to 1848), in Halychanyn, vol 1, nos 3–4, 1863). In Western Ukraine the most noted bibliographer was Ivan O. Levytsky. His main work, Halytsko-ruskaia bibliohrafiia XIX-ho stolitiia s uvzhliadneniem ruskykh izdanii poiavyvshykhsia v Uhorshchyni i Bukovyni (Galician-Ruthenian Bibliography of the 19th Century Including Ruthenian Publications That Appeared in Hungary and Bukovyna), was arranged chronologically for the years 1801–86 and was published in two volumes in Lviv in 1888–95. Because of his death, Ukraïns'ka bibliohrafiia Avstro-Uhorshchyny za roky 1887–1900 (Ukrainian Bibliography in Austria-Hungary for the Years 1887–1900) appeared in only three volumes, covering the years 1887–93; it was published by the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lviv in 1909–11 in vols 1–3 of Materiialy do ukraïns'koï bibliohrafiï. The Shevchenko Scientific Society also published his ‘Halyts'ko-rus'ka bibliohrafiia za roky 1772–1800' (Galician-Ruthenian Bibliography for the Years 1772–1800) in its Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, vol 52 (1903).
In Ukraine under Russia the historian Oleksander Lazarevsky compiled his Ukazatel' istochnikov dlia izucheniia Malorosiiskogo kraia (Guide to Sources for the Study of the Little Russian Land, Saint Petersburg 1858), which was a revised edition of his previous work published in Chernigovskie gubernskie vedomosti in 1853. Another historian, Hryhorii Myloradovych, supplemented Lazarevsky's work by publishing ‘Inostrannye sochineniia o Malorossii’ (Foreign Works on Little Russia) in Chernigovskie gubernskie vedomosti (1859, nos 24–31). In the same paper Lazarevsky began publishing in 1855 a current Ukrainian bibliography from the year 1854, which in 1856–8 appeared under the title Ukrainskaia literaturnaia letopis' (Ukrainian Literary Chronicle). In 1860 it was continued by H. Myloradovych and in 1861, in Poltavskie gubernskie vedomosti, nos 3–8, by the ethnographer Petro S. Yefymenko.
A bibliography of books and articles on Ukraine for the years 1858–60 and a guide to Ukrainian literature in Galicia for the years 1837–62 were compiled by a Russian bibliographer, Vladimir Mezhov, and published in the Ukrainian periodical Osnova (Saint Petersburg) in 1861 and 1862 respectively.
The Petr Valuev circular of 1863 and the Ems Ukase of 1876 against the Ukrainian language hindered the work of Ukrainian bibliographers. Nevertheless, lists and surveys continued to appear in Kievskaia starina, published in Kyiv in 1882–1906, and in almanacs, as well as in periodicals published in Lviv: the journal Pravda, Zoria (Lviv), Zhytie i slovo, Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk, and Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka.
In the almanac Rada (Kyiv 1883), Mykhailo Komarov published his Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk novoï ukraïns'koï literatury 1798–1883 r. (Bibliographic Guide to Modern Ukrainian Literature 1798–1883). When he died in 1913 Komarov left a manuscript titled ‘Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk ukraïns'kykh avtoriv’ (Bibliographic Guide to Ukrainian Authors). Komarov also compiled the guide Ukraïns'ka dramaturhiia (Ukrainian Dramaturgy, Odesa 1906), which covered the years 1815–1906, and a supplement, Do ‘ukraïns'koï dramaturhiï’ (On ‘Ukrainian Dramaturgy,’ Odesa 1912), covering the years 1906–12. Also thematically interesting was Borys Hrinchenko's Literatura ukrainskogo fol'klora 1777–1900 (Literature of Ukrainian Folklore, 1777–1900, Chernihiv 1901).
The independent Ukrainian National Republic institutionalized bibliographic studies in Ukraine: such new institutions as the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, the National Library of Ukraine, and the Supreme Book Chamber took charge of national bibliography. Under the Soviet regime these and many other, newly created institutions were allowed to continue their work. The problems of bibliography were discussed in such publications as Bibliolohichni visti (Kyiv 1923–30) of the Ukrainian Scientific Institute of Bibliology; Bibliotechnyi zbirnyk (1926–7) and Zhurnal bibliotekoznavstva ta bibliohrafiï (1927–30), of the National Library of Ukraine in Kyiv; Ukraïns'ka bibliohrafiia (no. 1, Kyiv 1928), of the Bibliographic Commission of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (nos 2–3, 1929, were devoted to personal bibliographies); Zapysky (1–4, 1928–30) of the Ukrainian Bibliographic Society in Odesa; and Pratsi (1-4, 1927-33) of the Odesa Central Scientific Library.
In this period several important guides appeared: Desiat' rokiv ukraïns'koï literatury, 1917–1927 (Ten Years of Ukrainian Literature, 1917–1927, 2 vols, Kharkiv 1928) by Aleksandr Leites and Mykola Yashek; Bibliohrafiia literatury z ukraïns'koho fol'kloru (Bibliography of Literature on Ukrainian Folklore, Kyiv 1930) by the ethnographer Oleksander Yu. Andriievsky; Materiialy do kraieznavchoï bibliohrafiï Ukraïny, 1847–1929 (Materials on the Bibliography of Regional Studies of Ukraine, 1847–1929, 1930) by Fedir Maksymenko; Bibliohrafiia ukraïns'koï presy, 1816–1916 (Bibliography of the Ukrainian Press, 1816–1916, Kharkiv 1930) by Varfomolii Ihnatiienko; Systematychnyi kataloh vydan', 1918–1929 (Systematic Catalog of Publications, 1918–1929, Kyiv 1930) of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, with two supplements for 1930–1, published in 1931–2; and others.
The Supreme Book Chamber in Kyiv was renamed the Ukrainian Book Chamber and transferred to Kharkiv in June 1922. In 1924 it began publishing Litopys ukraïns'koho druku, supplements to which also included Ukrainian publications published outside the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In the early 1930s all bibliographic institutions were either abolished or reorganized, and bibliographic publications were discontinued by the Soviet regime. Even Litopys ukraïns'koho druku, the organ of state bibliography in Ukraine, ceased to appear in October 1930. The Ukrainian Book Chamber was reorganized into the State Bibliographic Institute and later became the Book Chamber of the Ukrainian SSR, subordinated to the All-Union Book Chamber in Moscow. The organ of state bibliography started to appear again in 1935 as Litopys druku URSR. In 1936 four volumes of Litopys druku URSR: Knyhy, covering the years 1931–4, were published. The Book Chamber of the Ukrainian SSR also began publishing bibliographies of book reviews (1936), periodical articles (1936), newspaper articles (1937), and reviews of pictorial art (1937).
In interwar Western Ukraine under Polish rule, bibliographic studies were centered in the Shevchenko Scientific Society and its bibliographic commission, which continued to publish Materiialy do ukraïns'koï bibliohrafiï, vols 1–8, 1909–39. Bibliographic materials appeared also in the journals Knyzhka (Stanyslaviv 1921–3) and Ukraïns'ka knyha (vols 1–3, Lviv 1937–9; vols 4–5, Cracow 1942–3). Important contributions to Ukrainian bibliography were made by Ivan Kalynovych and Volodymyr Doroshenko, and especially by Yevhen Yulii Pelensky, author of Bibliohrafiia ukraïns'koï bibliohrafiï (Bibliography of Ukrainian Bibliography, 1934).
In Czechoslovakia those active in the field of bibliography included the historian Dmytro Doroshenko, compiler of Pokazhchyk literatury ukraïns'koiu movoiu v Rosiï za 1798–1897 roky (Guide to Literature in the Ukrainian Language in Russia for the Years 1798–1897, 1917; rev edn, 1925); Petro Zlenko, compiler of Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk naukovykh prats' ukraïns'koï emigratsiï za rr. 1921–31 (Bibliographic Guide to Scholarly Works by Ukrainian Emigrés for the Years 1921–31, 1932); Stepan Siropolko, editor of the journal Knyholiub (1927–32); Arkadii Zhyvotko, a bibliographer of the Ukrainian press; Lev Bykovsky, later active in Poland, Germany, and the United States; and others. In Warsaw the historian Myron Korduba compiled La littérature historique ukrainienne en Pologne et dans l'émigration ukrainienne (1929) and La littérature historique soviétique ukrainienne. Compte-rendu 1917–31 (1938). In Paris the historian Elie Borschak published L'Ukraine dans la littérature de l'Europe occidentale (1935).
After the Second World War the State Public Library of the Ukrainian SSR (see State Library of Ukraine) prepared the guide Sorok rokiv radians'koï vlady na Ukraïni (40 Years of Soviet Rule in Ukraine, 1958) and sponsored Ukraïns'ka Radians'ka Sotsialistychna Respublika, 1917–67 (The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1917–67, 1969) compiled by Mykola Rud. The Book Chamber of the Ukrainian SSR published Khudozhnia literatura vydana na Ukraïni za sorok rokiv, 1917–1957 (Belles Lettres Published in Ukraine in the Last Forty Years, 1917–1957, 2 vols, 1958–60) and Ukraïns'ka radians'ka kul'tura za sorok rokiv, 1917–57 (Ukrainian Soviet Culture during the Last Forty Years, 1917–57, 1957–60), prepared jointly with the Kharkiv State Scientific Library.
The Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR published the guide Radians'ki vydannia dokumental'nykh materialiv z istoriï Ukraïny 1917–1968 (Soviet Publications of Documentary Materials on the History of Ukraine, 1917–68, 1970). K. Kovalenko and P. Vysotska compiled the guide Fizychna heohrafiia URSR 1840–1958 rr. (Physical Geography of the Ukrainian SSR, 1840–1958, 1970). Ivan Shovkoplias prepared Rozvytok radians'koï arkheolohiï na Ukraïni 1917–1966 (The Development of Soviet Archeology in Ukraine, 1917–1966, 1969), and V. Mashotas compiled the guide Komunistychna partiia Zakhidnoï Ukraïny (The Communist Party of Western Ukraine, 1969) for the years 1919–67. The guide Ukraïns'ka mova (Ukrainian Language, 1963), covering the years 1918–61 was prepared by L. Holdenberh and N. Korolevych. Holdenberh also prepared Ukraïns'ka radians'ka literaturna bibliohrafiia (Ukrainian Soviet Literary Bibliography, 1971) and Bibliohrafichni dzherela ukraïns'koho literaturoznavstva (Bibliographical Sources of Ukrainian Literary Scholarship, 1977). Ivan Z. Boiko compiled Ukraïns'ki literaturni al'manakhy i zbirnyky XIX - pochatku XX st. (Ukrainian Literary Almanacs and Collections of the 19th and Beginning of the 20th Century, 1967). Significant for literary bibliography is the biobibliographic guide Ukraïns'ki pys'mennyky (Ukrainian Writers, 5 vols, 1960–5), edited by Oleksander Biletsky and others.
In the neglected field of the history of Ukrainian bibliography, contributions were made by I. Kornieichyk, author of Istoriia ukraïns'koï bibliohrafiï. Dozhovtnevyi period (History of Ukrainian Bibliography before the October Revolution, 1971), and M. Humeniuk, author of Ukraïns'ki bibliohrafy XIX - pochatku XX stolittia (Ukrainian Bibliographers of the 19th and Beginning of the 20th Century, 1969). A useful addition to the bibliography of old books is Fedir Maksymenko's union catalog Kyrylychni starodruky ukraïns'kykh drukaren', shcho zberihaiut'sia u l'vivs'kykh zbirkakh, 1574–1800 (Cyrillic Old Printings of Ukrainian Presses Preserved in Lviv Collections, 1574–1800, 1975). A contribution to retrospective bibliography is S. Petrov's catalog Knyhy hrazhdans'koho druku, vydani na Ukraïni XVIII - persha polovyna XIX stolittia (Books in the Hrazhdanka Type Published in Ukraine in the 18th and First Half of the 19th Century, 1971), which annotates publications of the years 1765–1860. The Central Scientific Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR published the guide Vydannia Akademiï nauk URSR, 1919–1967 (Publications of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, 1919–1967, 3 vols, 1969–71) and the annual for 1968, Vydannia Akademiï nauk URSR: Shchorichnyk 1968 (1971). It also published a catalog of its prerevolutionary newspaper holdings, Kataloh dorevoliutsiinykh hazet, shcho vydavalysia na Ukraïni, 1822–1916 (Catalog of Prerevolutionary Newspapers Published in Ukraine, 1822–1916, 1971). In 1974 it began publishing a quarterly, Ukraïns'ka RSR u bratnii sim'ï radians'kykh narodiv: Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk.
The Book Chamber of the Ukrainian SSR contributed to the bibliography of serials by publishing Periodychni vydannia URSR: Zhurnaly 1918–1960 (Periodical Publications of the Ukrainian SSR: Journals, 1918–60, 1956–64) and Periodychni vydannia URSR: Hazety 1917–1960 (Periodical Publications of the Ukrainian SSR: Newspapers, 1917–60, 1965). It also printed on a rotary press Knyha Ukraïns'koï RSR, 1917–1923: Bibliohrafiia (The Book in the Ukrainian SSR, 1917–1923: A Bibliography, 1959).
The Book Chamber of Ukrainian SSR published the following bibliographic serials: Litopys knyh (monthly since 1935); Litopys retsenzii (monthly since 1936), Litopys zhurnal'nykh statei (biweekly since 1936), Litopys hazetnykh statei (biweekly since 1937), Litopys obrazotvorchoho mystetstva (semiannually since 1937), Litopys muzychnoi literatury (semiannually, 1937–8 and since 1952), Ukraïns'ka RSR u vydanniakh respublik Radians'koho Soiuzu i kraïn sotsialistychnoï spivdruzhnosti (annually since 1956), Novi vydannia URSR (every ten days since 1958), Litopys periodychnykh vydan' URSR (once in 1934 and annually since 1972). It has also published the annual Knyhy vydavnytstv Ukraïny (Books of Publishing Houses in Ukraine) since 1961. All bibliographic publications were issued in small quantities. Retrospective bibliographies had a discernible political bias and were often incomplete, since they excluded works on or by various ‘enemies of the people.’
Ukrainian bibliographers abroad, deprived of access to libraries and archives in Ukraine, concentrated chiefly on Ukrainian publications appearing abroad and on foreign-language publications dealing with Ukraine and Ukrainians. Among the most noted works are Yevhen Yulii Pelensky's Ucrainica, a select bibliography of Ukraine in Western European languages, published by the Shevchenko Scientific Society in its Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka, vol 158 (1948); Roman Weres's Ukraine: Selected References in the English Language 1961, rev edn 1974); and Oleksander Sokolyszyn's Ukrainian Selected and Classified Bibliography in English (1972). A significant contribution to Ukrainian bibliography has been made by Bohdan Romanenchuk, compiler of Bibliohrafiia vydan' ukraïns'koï emigratsiinoï literatury, 1945–1970 (Bibliography of Publications of Ukrainian Emigré Literature, 1945–70, 1974) and editor of Ukraïns'ka knyha (Philadelphia), a quarterly journal of bibliography and bibliology.
Current Ukrainian publications were recorded in the journal Biblos, published by Mykola Sydor-Chartoryisky in New York in 1955–79. Annuals of Ukrainian émigré bibliography were compiled by M. Sydor-Chartoryisky (1956), O. Danko and M. Labunka (1957), and Roman Weres (1973–5). R. Weres also compiled an Index of the Ukrainian Essays in Collections Published outside the Iron Curtain for the years 1951–71 (1967–72). Volodymyr Doroshenko compiled Reiester ukraïns'kykh periodychnykh vydan' u vil'nomu sviti za rr. 1961–62 (Register of Ukrainian Periodical Publications in the Free World for the Years 1961–62, New York 1963); and O. Fedynsky has compiled annuals of Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk ukraïns'koï presy poza mezhamy ukraïny (Bibliographic Guide to the Ukrainian Press outside the Boundaries of Ukraine, vols 1–12, Cleveland 1967–79). Others who have been engaged in the field of Ukrainian bibliography are Maksym Boiko (Volhynia), M. Borovyk (the press), B. Budurowycz (Slavic collections in Canada), Lev Bykovsky (the press), I. Chaikovsky (the press, memoirs), N. Chaplenko (women's publications), Aleksander Gregorovich (Ukrainians in Canada), M. Kravchuk (the press), Bohdan Kravtsiv (general bibliography), Yurii Lavrinenko (communism), G. Liber and A. Mostovych (dissent), Luka Lutsiv (literary bibliography), V. Lutsiv (the press), Stepan Ripetsky (the military), Jaroslav Rudnyckyj (Ukrainica-Canadiana) Lev Shankovsky (the military underground), Yar Slavutych (language and literature), Lubomyr Wynar (the press and dissertations), and Oleh Pidhainy (the Ukrainian National Republic).
Kovalevs’kyi, Iu. ‘Bibliohrafiia i Ukraïns'kyi bibliohrafichnyi instytut,’ Knyhar, no. 22 (Kyiv 1919)
Iasyns’kyi, M. ‘Holovni momenty z istoriï ukrains'koï bibliohrafiï,’ Bibliotechnyi zbirnyk, 3 (Kyiv 1927)
Godkevich, M. ‘Organizatsiia bibliograficheskoi raboty na Ukraine,’ in Bibliografiia v SSSR (Kharkiv 1928)
Pelens'kyi, Ie. Bibliohrafiia ukraïns'koï bibliohrafiï (Lviv 1934)
Bibliografiia sovetskoi bibliografii, 1939, 1946–77 (Moscow 1941-79)
Humeniuk, M. Ukraïns'ki bibliohrafy XIX - pochatku XX stolittia: Narysy pro zhyttia ta diial'nist’ (Kharkiv 1969)
Migńon, K. ‘Księgoznawstwo ukraińskie w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym,’ Studia o ksiązce, 1 (Wrocław 1970)
Kornieichyk, I. Istoriia ukraïns'koï bibliohrafiï: Dozhovtnevyi period (Kharkiv 1971)
Bykovs'kyi, L. ‘Ukraïns'ki knyhoznavchi periodyky i zbirnyky pershoï polovyny XX-ho stolittia,' manuscript (Denver, Colo 1978)
Wynar, B.S. ‘Ukrainian Bibliography,’ in Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, 31 (New York 1981)
Hranovs’kyi, B.V. et al (eds). Dzherela ukraïnoznvstva. Vol 1. Vitzhyzniani bibliohrafichni dzherela (Kyiv 1990)
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]