Press (преса; presa). The development of the Ukrainian press is closely connected to that of organized Ukrainian cultural, economic, and nation-building activity and political thought. In general, until the end of the first half of the 19th century in Austrian-ruled Ukraine and 1905 in Russian-ruled Ukraine, conditions were such that a Ukrainian-language press could not freely develop. Ukrainian-language periodicals were established through the efforts of individual Ukrainians, and despite inadequate financing, a limited readership, and constant censorship and administrative restrictions, they grew in number, content, and circulation, gradually encompassing all facets of national life.

Western Ukraine. The first periodical published in Ukraine was a French-language weekly in Austrian-ruled Lviv, Gazette de Léopol (1776). The first daily newspapers were published in Polish in Lviv: Dziennik patryjotycznych polityków (1792–3, 1794–8), edited by the Ukrainian Rev Mykhailo Harasevych, and Gazeta Lwowska (1811–1918), which became a state-owned paper in 1847 and from 1890 carried a Ukrainian-language supplement, Narodna chasopys’.

During the Revolution of 1848–9 in the Habsburg monarchy, the first Ukrainian-language papers in GaliciaZoria halytska (1848–57), the pro-Polish Dnewnyk Ruskij (1848), the Russophile Novyny (1849) and Pchola (1849), and the Austrian government’s Halycho-ruskii vistnyk (1849–50)—were founded in Lviv. The first Ukrainian women’s periodical, Lada, was published in Lviv in 1853 (15 issues).

With the introduction of the 1860 Austrian constitution, the Western Ukrainian press was able to develop much more freely. Between 1862 and 1866 the Galician populists in Lviv published the journals Vechernytsi (Lviv), the monthly Meta, Nyva (1865), and the weekly Rusalka; then they put out the journal Pravda (1867–80, 1884, 1888–96) that assumed a national importance, and the semiweekly newspaper Osnova (1870–2). The Russophiles also issued their own periodicals, notably the paper Slovo (Lviv) (1861–87) in Lviv and the journal Nauka (from 1872) in Kolomyia. Other periodicals also appeared, such as the satirical magazine Strakhopud (1863–8, 1872–3, 1880–2, 1886–93), the agricultural-economic papers Nedilia (Lviv) (1865–6) and Hospodar (Lviv) (1869–72), the women’s newspaper Rusalka (1868–70), the children’s magazine Lastivka (1869–81), the religious semimonthly Ruskii Sion (1871–85), the student journal Druh (1874–7), and the educational gazette Hazeta shkol’na (1875–9). Outside Lviv the first Ukrainian-language periodical in Galicia was Holos narodnyi (1865–8) in Kolomyia. In Bukovyna the first Ukrainian periodical was the weekly Bukovynskaia zoria, published by Ivan Hlibovytsky in Chernivtsi in 1870 (16 issues).

With the imposition of the Ems Ukase in 1876 in Russian-ruled Ukraine, moderate and conservative Ukrainian-language newspapers in Galicia and Bukovyna—notably Bat’kivshchyna (1879–96), Dilo (1880–1939), Svoboda (Lviv) (1897–1919, 1922–39), Ruslan (1897–14), Narodne slovo (1907–11), and Nove slovo (1912–14) in Lviv, and Bukovyna (1885–1918), Ruska rada (1898–1908), and Narodnyi holos (1909–15) in Chernivtsi—fulfilled the role of ‘national’ organs. At the same time they were forced to compete with a persistent Russophile press—eg, Russkaia rada (1871–1912) in Kolomyia; Prolom (1881–2), Vistnyk Narodnoho doma (1882–1924), Novyi prolom (1883–7), Chervonaia Rus' (1888–91), Russkoe slovo (Lviv) (1890–1914), Halytskaia Rus’ (1891–2), Halychanyn (1893–1913), Zhivaia mysl’ (1902–5), Prikarpatskaia Rus’ (1909–15, 1918–20), and Holos naroda (1909–14) in Lviv; Russka pravda (1888–92) in Vienna; and Pravoslavnaia Bukovina (1893–1905), Bukovynski vidomosty (1895–1909), Pravoslavnaia Rus’ (1909–10), and Russkaia pravda (1910–14) in Chernivtsi. In Hungarian-ruled Transcarpathia the press either was Russophile—eg, Karpat' (1873–86) and Listok (1885–1903) in Uzhhorod—or reflected a regional identity using the Transcarpathian dialect—eg, the newspaper Nauka (1897–1914) in Uzhhorod and Nedilia (Transcarpathia) (1897–1918) in Budapest.

In the late 1870s, under the influence of Mykhailo Drahomanov’s ideas, the Galician populists split into moderates and socialists, and the first Ukrainian socialist miscellanies—Ivan Franko and Mykhailo Pavlyk’s Hromads’kyi druh, Dzvin, and Molot in Lviv in 1878, and Drahomanov’s influential Hromada (Geneva) (1878–82) in Geneva—were published. Franko edited the first socialist monthly S’vit (1881–2), but it was only after the creation of the Ukrainian Radical party (URP) in 1890 that a truly viable Ukrainian radical and socialist press appeared in Galicia and Bukovyna: the URP organs Narod (1890–5), Hromads’kyi holos (1892–1939), Khliborob (Lviv, Kolomyia) (1891–5), Radykal (1895–6), Narodna sprava (1907–10), and Hromadianyn (1909–11), and the Ukrainian Social Democratic party organs Volia (Lviv) (1900–7), Zemlia i volia (1906–13, 1919–20, 1922–4), Chervonyi prapor (Ternopil) (1906–7), Borba (1908–14), Nash holos (Lviv) (1910–11), and Vpered (Lviv) (1911–13, 1918–24). In addition, organs of the underground Revolutionary Ukrainian party and Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' party in Russian-ruled Ukraine—Haslo (1902–3), Pratsia (1904–5), Selianyn (1903–5), Pratsia (1909–10), and Robitnyk (1910)—were printed in Chernivtsi or Lviv and smuggled into Russian-ruled Ukraine.

The first Ukrainian-language academic periodicals were published in Lviv: the Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia society’s Naukovyi sbornyk (1865–8) and the Shevchenko Scientific Society’s (NTSh) Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka (est 1892) and Chasopys’ pravnycha (1889–1906, 1912). The first major Ukrainian literary-cultural and scholarly journals were also published there: the NTSh’s Zoria (Lviv) (1880–97), which became a pan-Ukrainian literary forum in the 1890s, and Ivan Franko’s more radical Zhytie i slovo (1894–7). The latter two journals ceased publication to allow Mykhailo Hrushevsky to establish Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk, a journal published in Lviv (1898–1906), then in Kyiv (1907–14, 1917–19), and again in Lviv (1922–32) that until 1919 played a seminal role in the development of Ukrainian literature. Also published in Lviv were the pedagogical periodicals, Uchytel’ (1889–1914) and Nasha shkola (1909–14, 1916–18); the modernist journals Ruska khata (1905–6), the magazine S’vit (1906–7), and Buduchyna (1909–10); the first Ukrainian arts magazine, Artystychnyi vistnyk (1905–7); the progressive women’s semimonthly Meta (1908); the legal journal Pravnychyi vistnyk (1910–13); the first Ukrainian sports papers, Sokil's'ki visty (1909–10) and Visty z Zaporozha (1910–14); the first Ukrainian-language medical journal, Zdorovlie (1912–14); and the popular cultural magazine Iliustrovana Ukraïna (1913–14). Many other periodicals were also published (see Agricultural periodicals, Children's magazines, Economic press, Humoristic and satiric press, Legal press, Literary journals, Medical journals, Music journals, Pedagogical periodicals, Religious press, Student press, and Women's press).

Russian-ruled Ukraine. The first periodicals in Russian-ruled Ukraine were published in Russian in the cultural and academic center, Kharkiv: the weekly magazine Khar’kovskii ezhenedel’nik (1812), the cultural-cum-scholarly journals Ukrainskii vestnik (Kharkiv) (1816–19) and Ukrainskii zhurnal (1824–5), the satirical magazine Khar’kovskii Demokrit (1816), the agricultural magazine Ukrainskii domovod (1817), and the weekly newspaper Khar’kovskie izvestiia (1817–23). Others appeared in French and Russian in Odesa: the biweekly newspapers Messager de la Russie méridionale (1820) and Vestnik Iuzhnoi Rossii (1821), the semiweekly paper Journal d’Odessa (1824–81), and the semiweekly (from 1864 daily) Odesskii vestnik (1827–94).

Elsewhere in Russian-ruled Ukraine, it took nearly two decades for the first periodicals to appear. In Kyiv the first was the contract fair newspaper Kievskie ob"iavleniia (1835–8). From 1838 official Russian-language newspapers titled Gubernskie vedomosti were published weekly and later more often (eg, daily in Kharkiv from 1874) in every gubernial capital.

Although some Ukrainian prose and poetry appeared in the Kharkiv periodicals in 1817, thereafter the publication of Ukrainian-language belles lettres was limited to nonserial almanacs. Nearly half a century passed before Ukrainian materials reappeared in a periodical published in the Russian Empire—the literary and scholarly monthly Osnova (Saint Petersburg) (1861–2) in Saint Petersburg. Despite its brevity Osnova had a decisive impact on the development of a Ukrainian national consciousness in both the Russian Empire and the Austrian Empire. After its suppression the only periodical to publish material in the Ukrainian language in the Russian Empire was Leonid Hlibov’s briefly published weekly, Chernigovskii listok (Chernihiv, 1861–3). The first Ukrainian newspaper—in spirit though not in language—was Kievskii telegraf (1859–76), the unofficial organ of the Hromada of Kyiv. Repeatedly denounced by the Russian tsarist newspaper Kievlianin (1864–1919), it was shut down in 1876, the year that the Ems Ukase forbade all printing in Ukrainian in the Russian Empire. During the next three decades the journal Kievskaia starina (1882–1907) was the only periodical promoting Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian studies in Russian-ruled Ukraine.

From the 1860s on, Eparkhial’nye vedomosti, official newspapers of the Russian Orthodox church, were published semimonthly and later more frequently in every eparchy. No legal newspapers in Russian-ruled Ukraine—including dailies founded in Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Kharkiv, Katerynoslav, Odesa, Zhytomyr, Kamianets-Podilskyi, and Yelysavethrad from the 1860s on—were allowed to print independent political accounts and editorials; instead they reprinted news provided by the official Saint Petersburg press.

Scholars and scientists were able to contribute to Russian-language academic periodicals published in Ukraine, including the Imperial Agricultural Society of Southern Russia’s Zapiski (est 1832), Zapiski Imperatorskogo Odesskogo obshchestva istorii i drevnostei (est 1844), and Zapiski Imperatorskogo Novorossiiskogo universiteta (est 1853) in Odesa; Trudy Kievskoi dukhovnoi akademii (est 1860) and Kievskie universitetskie izvestiia (est 1861) in Kyiv; the Zapiski published by branches of the Imperial Russian Technical Society in Kyiv (from 1871), Kharkiv (from 1881), and Odesa (from 1885); and Zapiski Imperatorskogo Khar’kovskogo universiteta (est 1874) in Kharkiv.

During the Revolution of 1905, restrictions and censorship were relaxed, and the Ukrainian-language press flourished. The first periodical to appear was the newspaper Khliborob (Lubny) in Lubny, Poltava gubernia, five issues of which were published briefly in 1905 before it was shut down. Many periodicals were published in Kyiv, among them the influential dailies Hromads’ka dumka (1905–6) and Rada (Kyiv) (1906–14); the literary monthly Nova hromada (1906), Ukraïns’ka khata (1909–14), Dzvin (Kyiv) (1913–14), and Siaivo (1913–14); the satirical weekly Shershen’ (1906); the children’s magazine Moloda Ukraïna (1908–12, 1914); the weekly newspapers Slovo (Kyiv) (1907–9), Selo (1909–11), Zasiv (1911–12), and Maiak (Kyiv) (1913–14); the scholarly Zapysky Ukraïns’koho naukovoho tovarystva v Kyievi (1908–18); the pedagogical journal Svitlo (Kyiv) (1910–14); and the semimonthly co-operative periodical Nasha kooperatsiia (1913–14). Thirty-odd Ukrainian-language periodicals were published elsewhere. Notable were the weekly Ridnyi krai (1906–13, 1915–16) in Poltava, Kyiv, and Hadiach; the farmers’ weekly Svitova zirnytsia (1906–13) in Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Penkivka (Podilia gubernia), and Kyiv; the beekeeping magazine Ukraïns’ke bzhil’nytstvo (1906–10) in Saint Petersburg and Kyiv; the illustrated semimonthly Dniprovi khvyli (1910–14) in Katerynoslav; and the weekly newspaper Snip (1912–13) in Kharkiv. Plagued with financial difficulties and subjected to official bans, restrictions, and new strict censorship laws, most periodicals were short-lived.

Outside Ukraine to 1914. The first Ukrainian-language periodicals outside Ukraine were published in Vienna by the Austrian government—Vistnyk (Vienna) (1850–66), Vistnyk zakonov derzhavnykh i pravytel’stva (1854–8), and Vistnyk zakonov derzhavnykh dlia korolevstv i kraev ... (1872–1916). At the turn of the 20th century, Ukrainians published in Vienna two German-language periodicals—Ruthenische Revue (1903–5) and Ukrainische Rundschau (1905–14)—to inform the Western public about the Ukrainian question. The first periodical to serve Transcarpathia’s Ruthenians was a religious weekly published in Budapest, Tserkovnaia gazeta (1856–8). Later another weekly, the aforementioned Nedilia (Transcarpathia) (1897–1918), was published there.

In the Russian Empire, after the aforementioned Osnova (Saint Petersburg) (1861–2), the first Ukrainian-language periodicals outside Ukraine, Ukrainskii vestnik (Saint Petersburg) (1906), Nasha Duma (1907), and Ridna sprava – Dums’ki visti (1907), were published in Saint Petersburg as the organs of the Ukrainian caucus in the Russian State Duma. The monthly Vil’na Ukraïna (Saint Petersburg) (1906) was also published there by the Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' party. A short-lived weekly, Zoria (Moscow) (1906), and an influential Russian-language monthly dealing with Ukraine, Ukrainskaia zhizn’ (1912–17), were published in Moscow.

The immigrant press in the New World. Overseas the first wave of emigrants from Western Ukraine established their own periodicals. In the United States of America the first Ukrainian newspaper, Ameryka (1886–90), was published in Shenandoah, Pennsylvania. The first major paper, the Ruthenian National Association’s Svoboda, was founded in New York in 1893 and has remained the most important Ukrainian newspaper in the United States. Other papers were founded in the 1900s and 1910s, among them the still extant Narodna volia (est 1911) in Olyphant, Pennsylvania (later in Scranton), and Ameryka (Philadelphia) (est 1912) in New Britain, Connecticut (later in Philadelphia).

In Canada the first Ukrainian newspaper, Kanadiis’kyi farmer, supported by the Canadian Liberal party, was founded in Winnipeg in 1903. It was followed by a similar but short-lived paper, Slovo (1904–5), supported by the Conservative party. The weekly Ukraïns’kyi holos was founded in Winnipeg in 1910. Many other newspapers with differing political and religious views were published in the United States and Canada between 1907 and 1914 and in the interwar years. The first Ukrainian newspaper in Brazil, Zoria (Curitiba), was published in Curitiba in 1907–10.

In 1913, 141 Ukrainian-language periodicals were published throughout the world. Only 19 of them were in the Russian Empire, as compared to 234 periodicals in Polish, 13 in Yiddish, and 21 in Armenian. At the same time, in Russian-ruled Ukraine 226 Russian periodicals were published. Eighty Ukrainian periodicals were published in Austria-Hungary: 66 in Galicia, 8 in Bukovyna, 2 in Transcarpathia, and 4 in Vienna or Budapest. Although publications of the Ukrainian press at home and abroad grew in number, there was not often a corresponding rise in quality. Of the newspapers published there were only three dailies and very few weeklies, and their editors for the most part lacked professional training. Most periodicals were financially unstable: few had private benefactors, none had state or municipal subsidies, and all had little advertising revenue and a limited readership.

1914–17. The First World War was catastrophic for the Ukrainian press. The tsarist authorities banned and closed down most Ukrainian-language periodicals the day after Russia entered the war, and on 3 January 1915 all Ukrainian publications were prohibited within the Kyiv Military District. Only Ridnyi krai, published in 1915–16 in Hadiach by Olena Pchilka, was allowed to appear in the yaryzhka alphabet. The literary monthly Osnova (Odesa), published by Andrii Nikovsky in Odesa in 1915, was shut down after three issues, and other periodicals in Russian-ruled Ukraine that began legal publication in 1915 and 1916 met with the same fate. The only surviving sanctioned Ukrainophile organ in the Russian Empire was Ukrainskaia zhizn’ in Moscow. In these circumstances only clandestine publications, such as Borot’ba of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries and the Ukrainian Radical Democratic Association’s Vil’na dumka, were circulated secretly in Kyiv in 1915.

During the Russian military occupation of Galicia and Bukovyna, all Ukrainian publications there were closed down and banned, and only Russophile and Polish ones were allowed. Following the Russian retreat from Lviv in June 1915, however, the Western Ukrainian press was revived (eg, the new paper Ukraïns’ke slovo (1915–18) and Shliakhy [1913–18], which became an organ of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen). Propaganda promoting the Ukrainian cause was disseminated in newspapers published by the Austrian government for Ukrainian soldiers serving in the Austrian army in Vidrodzhennia Ukraïny (1918), and for Ukrainian soldiers interned by the Russian army in Austrian prisoner of war camps in the Russian-language Nedelia (1916–18). The newspapers Dilo, Svoboda (Lviv), and Bukovyna were published in Vienna during the war. There they played an important part in Ukrainian journalism, as did the separatist newspaper Vistnyk Soiuza vyzvolennia Ukraïny (1914–18) of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine (SVU). The SVU also published Ukrainische Nachrichten (1914–18) in Vienna and La Revue ukrainienne (1915–17) in Lausanne, and it laid the groundwork for newspapers published in prisoner of war camps holding Ukrainians in Austria and Germany, such as Prosvitnyi lystok (1915–16) and Hromads’ka dumka (1917–18) in Wetzlar, Rozvaha (1915–18) in Freistadt, Rozsvit (1916–18) in Rastatt, and Vil’ne slovo (1916–18) and Selianyn in Salzwedel.

A few other Ukrainian periodicals were published in other languages to disseminate information about Ukraine and the Ukrainian cause: the Supreme Ukrainian Council’s (later General Ukrainian Council) Ukrainische Korrespondenz (1914–18) in Vienna, the monthly L’Ukraine (1915–20) in Lausanne, and the government-sponsored Negyilya and Ukránia (1916–17) in Budapest.

1917–20. The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia, the collapse of Austria-Hungary, and the establishment of Ukrainian statehood created favorable conditions for the development of the Ukrainian press. Several partisan dailies came into being in Kyiv in March and April 1917, notably Nova rada (Kyiv) (1917–19), Robitnycha hazeta (1917–19), Narodnia volia (1917–19), and Borot’ba (1917–20). Later the dailies Hromads’ke slovo (1917) and Promin’ (1917), the nonpartisan daily Vidrodzhennia (Kyiv) (1918), and the semiofficial organ of the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic Trybuna (1918–19) appeared, as well as Trudova respublyka (1918) and many other Ukrainian, Russian, Jewish, and Polish newspapers.

Ukrainian newspapers published in gubernia and county centers in 1917 and 1918 were also predominantly partisan, a reflection of the political division of Ukrainian society. Thus, for example, the Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' party published Robitnyk in Kharkiv, Holos robitnyka and Nasha sprava in Katerynoslav, Vil’nyi holos in Poltava, and Borot’ba in Kamianets-Podilskyi; the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries published Rukh in Kharkiv, Sotsiialist-revoliutsioner in Poltava, and Zemlia i volia in Katerynoslav; the Union of Autonomists-Federalists published Vil’na Ukraïna (Uman) in Uman; and the Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Independentists published Samostiinyk in Kyiv and, later, the daily Ukraïna. The Peasant Union, Prosvita societies, co-operative associations, and gubernial people’s councils (former zemstvos) also published a great number of newspapers.

In Kyiv new literary, scholarly, and art journals appeared: Knyhar (1917–20), Teatral’ni visty (1917), the revived Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk (1917–19, transferred to Kyiv in 1917, Universal’nyi zhurnal (1918), Nashe mynule (1918–19), the journal Mystetstvo (1919–20), Muzahet (1919), and the satirical Gedz’, Rep'iakhy, and Budiak.

Specialized and professional periodicals also appeared, most of them in Kyiv: eg, in education, Vil’na ukraïns’ka shkola, Osvita (Kamianets-Podilskyi), and Nova shkola (Poltava); for children, Sterno, Kameniar, Voloshky, and Iunak (Pereiaslav); for women, Zhinochyi vistnyk; the military periodical Ukraïns’ka viis’kova sprava; the medical semimonthly Ukraïns’ki medychni visty; the legal journal Zakon i pravo; and the All-Ukrainian Union of Zemstvos’ organ Vistnyk hromads’koï agronomiï.

A number of official publications appeared in Kyiv under the Central Rada, the Hetman government, and the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic: Visty z Ukraïns’koï Tsentral’noï Rady, Vistnyk Heneral’noho Sekretariiatu Ukraïny, and bulletins of various government ministries, bureaus, and trade unions. Under the Hetman government, the monthly Viis’kovo-naukovyi vistnyk heneral’noho shtabu was published. After the Directory abandoned Kyiv, some of its publications came out in Vinnytsia and Kamianets-Podilskyi, and new newspapers also sprang up there, eg, Nova Ukraïna (Kamianets-Podilskyi), Respublikans’ki visty, Zhyttia Podillia, Trudova Ukraïna, Trudovyi shliakh, Nash shliakh, and Slovo.

In the 1918–19 Western Ukrainian National Republic, 59 Ukrainian-language periodicals were published. After the Polish occupation of Lviv in November 1918, a new daily, Ukraïns’kyi holos (1918–19), appeared in Lviv and Ternopil as the organ of the State Secretariat of the Western Ukrainian National Republic. The Ukrainian-held city of Stanyslaviv served as the main center of Ukrainian publishing, however. Published there were Svoboda (Lviv) (moved from Lviv), Narod (Stanyslaviv), Republyka, Nove zhyttia (Stanyslaviv), Volia, Republykanets’, and nine other papers. Other weekly and less frequent papers were published in county centers.

Over 20 Bolshevik Russian-language newspapers were published in Ukraine in 1917–18. The most important were Donetskii proletarii, Proletarii, and Kommunist in Kharkiv; Proletarskaia mysl’ in Kyiv; Odesskii kommunist in Odesa; and Zvezda in Katerynoslav. The only Bolshevik paper published in Ukrainian at that time was Vistnyk Ukraïns’koï Narodnoï Respubliky (Kharkiv and Kyiv, January–March 1918), the organ of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Ukrainian Soviet of Workers’, Soldiers’, and Peasants’ Deputies.

Ukrainian newspapers were also published in 1917 and 1918 in other parts of the Russian Empire: Promin’ (Moscow) (1916–17) in Moscow, Ukraïns’ki visty Zakavkazu and Ukraïns’ka Narodnia Respublika in Tbilisi, Ukraïns’ka amurs’ka sprava in Blagoveshchensk, Zasiv in Harbin, Ukraïnets’ na Zelenomu Klyni in Vladivostok, Khvyli Ukraïny in Khabarovsk, Ukraïnets’ na Sybiri in Omsk, Chornomorets’ in Katerynodar, Ukraïns’kyi holos in Riga, Pratsia i volia in Voronezh, and Chornomors’ka rada and Chornomors’kyi ukraïnets’ in Novorossiisk.

The growth of the Ukrainian press during the struggle for independence (1917–20) was much greater than that of education, scholarship, or even book publishing. Although only 10 Ukrainian-language periodicals had appeared in Russian-ruled Ukraine in 1916, after the February Revolution of 1917 there were 106. By 1918 their number had reached a maximum of 218, and then it dropped to 173 in 1919 and 79 in 1920. Despite paper shortages, newspapers were printed in large quantities. The chaos in transportation and communications provided the impetus for establishing numerous newspapers and journals in the provinces. From 1917 until 1919 most periodicals appeared fairly regularly. In 1919, however, because of the Ukrainian-Soviet War, 1917–21, and Ukrainian-Polish War in Galicia, 1918–19, they were often forced to change location and to suspend publication. Although functioning primarily as a source of information, the Ukrainian press of this period was also an important factor in the formation of political opinion, particularly in the countryside, where there was a shortage of books and schools.

The Ministry of Propaganda of the Ukrainian National Republic, the State Press Bureau, and the Ukrainian Telegraph Agency, the latter two of which were established in May 1918 by the Hetman government and headed by Dmytro Dontsov (by Volodymyr Kalynovych under the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic), played an important part in the development of the press. The Hetman government's Ministry of International Affairs published a weekly bulletin on the foreign press, Vistnyk zakordonnoï presy, in Kyiv in 1918. Ukrainian press and information bureaus abroad were active in 1918–20. They were attached to the Ukrainian legations in Berlin, Paris, London, Rome, Washington, DC, Prague, Copenhagen, and Vienna and published information bulletins. The Ukrainian governments also sponsored foreign-language journals, such as Die Ukraine in Berlin (1918–26), Ukrainische Blätter in Vienna (1918), L’Ukraine in Lausanne (1919), France et Ukraine in Paris (1920), La Voce dell’Ukraina in Rome (1919), and newspapers published in Greek in Athens and in Bulgarian in Sofia (1919–20).

Soviet Ukraine, 1919–41. The first major Bolshevik dailies in Ukrainian were Bil’shovyk (1919–25) in Kyiv, Visti VUTsVK (1920–34) in Kharkiv and Kyiv (1934–41), and Selians’ka bidnota (est 1920) in Kharkiv. Important communist newspapers and journals were Visti Tsentral’noho komitetu Komunistychnoï partiï (bil’shovykiv) Ukraïny (est 1921) in Kharkiv and, in Russian, Kommunist (est 1918 in Moscow and published in Kharkiv from 1919), the CC CP(B)U journal Kommunist (1920–1), and Proletarskaia pravda (1917–24; see Proletars’ka pravda) and Kievskii proletarii (1920–31) in Kyiv. Upon establishing their control over Ukraine the Bolsheviks gradually discontinued all noncommunist publications in 1919–20. A temporary respite was granted only to their allies, the Borotbists and Ukrainian Communist party, who were allowed to continue publishing their organs Borot’ba and Trudove zhyttia in Kyiv, Chervonyi prapor (1919–24) in Kyiv and later Kharkiv, and Chervonyi shliakh in Kamianets-Podilskyi. In 1920, of 151 periodicals published in Soviet Ukraine, only 82 were in Ukrainian. By 1922 there were no noncommunist periodicals in Ukraine, and only 69 Ukrainian-language publications.

With the introduction of the policy of Ukrainization in 1923, a new stage began in the development of the Ukrainian press. For the first time in Ukrainian history, the majority of newspapers and journals in Ukraine, even outside Kyiv and Kharkiv (eg, in Odesa and Katerynoslav), were published in Ukrainian. The number of periodicals increased significantly. The literary rather than political press played the leading role in Soviet Ukrainian intellectual life, after Vasyl Blakytny, the editor in chief of Visti VUTsVK, introduced the supplement Kul’tura i pobut and published therein Mykola Khvylovy’s polemics on literature and culture (see Literary Discussion), and the major literary-political monthly Chervonyi shliakh (1923–36) was begun in Kharkiv.

The Soviet Ukrainian political press was controlled by Moscow, and served primarily as a tool of Communist Party propaganda, often criticizing and condemning the literary journals for their ‘nationalist deviations.' The newspapers of this period with the largest circulation were the republican dailies Kommunist (published in Ukrainian from 1926) and Visti VUTsVK. Other major dailies were Proletars’ka pravda (1924–41) and Kievskii proletarii (1925–31) in Kyiv, Khar’kovskii proletarii (1924–30) in Kharkiv, Izvestiia (1920–9) and Chornomors’ka komuna (est 1929) in Odesa, the republican Komsomol paper Komsomolets’ Ukraïny (1925–43), the republican trade-union papers Proletarii (1923–35) and Robitnycha hazeta Proletar (1926–32), Diktatura truda (1920–32) in Staline, Zvezda (1917–29) in Dnipropetrovsk, and the organs of the Ukrainian Military District Chervona Armiia (1926–38) and Oborona. Newspapers for the peasants, with their own distinctive character, appeared during this period, eg, Selians’ka pravda (1921–5) and Radians’ke selo (1924–32). In general the Soviet Ukrainian newspapers of this time were not yet carbon copies of their Russian counterparts. They devoted attention to Ukrainian topics and issues in both Soviet Ukraine and Western Ukraine; their focus, however, was usually determined by the Party line.

Party control over the literary journals and art journals was also quite firm, but not complete. Even Chervonyi shliakh sometimes published veiled critiques of the regime. A new major literary monthly, Zhyttia i revoliutsiia (1925–33) in Kyiv, was less communist in orientation and solicited contributions from various writers’ groups, including MARS and the Neoclassicists. It also devoted much attention to the promotion of Ukrainian traditions and cultural ties with the West. Another seminal journal was the bimonthly Vaplite (1926–7), published by Mykola Khvylovy’s coterie. After it was forced by the Party to close in 1927, direct criticism of the Party and of Soviet life was no longer possible; and the contributors to Vaplite’s successor, the innovative monthly Literaturnyi iarmarok (1928–30), employed Aesopian language to express their anti-Stalinist views.

Other important literary journals published during the Ukrainization period were: in Kharkiv, the Futurists' Gong komunkul’ta (1924) and Nova generatsiia (1927–30), the Pluh association’s Pluzhanyn (1925–7) and Pluh (1925–33), the Sovietophile Western Ukrainian émigré writers’ Zakhidnia Ukraïna (1927–33), the journal of the All-Ukrainian Association of Proletarian Writers Hart (1927–32), the Prolitfront group’s Prolitfront (1930), and the popular Universal’nyi zhurnal (1928–9); in Kyiv, the Komsomol journal Molodniak (1927–37) and the popular semimonthly journal Nova hromada (1922–33); in Odesa, Shkval (1924–33) and Metalevi dni (1930–3); in Dnipropetrovsk, Zoria (Dnipropetrovsk) (1925–34); and in Artemivsk (Donetsk oblast) and then Luhansk, Zaboi (1923–32).

There were a few periodicals devoted exclusively to literary criticism and literature studies. They included the bibliographical journals Knyha (1923–4) and Nova knyha (1924–5), the scholarly bimonthly Literaturnyi arkhiv (1930–1), and the Marxist journal Krytyka (1928–32), renamed Za markso-lenins’ku krytyku (1932–5) and Literaturna krytyka (1935–40).

Ukrainian scholarly and scientific periodicals flourished in the 1920s and early 1930s. Most were published by the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kyiv, including the journal of Ukrainian studies Ukraïna (1914–30) (in Soviet Ukraine: 1924–33), edited by Mykhailo Hrushevsky. New periodicals in the arts were published in the 1920s and 1930s: Shliakhy mystetstva (1921–3), Nove mystetstvo (1925–8), Radians’ke mystetstvo (1928–32), Mystets’ka trybuna (1930–1), and Maliarstvo i skul’ptura (1935–9), later renamed Obrazotvorche mystetstvo (1935–41). New music journals were also published, as were theater periodicals, such as Teatr–Muzyka–Kino (1925–7), Sil’s’kyi teatr (1926–30), renamed Masovyi teatr (1931–3), and Radians’kyi teatr (1929–31), and film periodicals, such as Kino (1925–33) and Radians’ke kino (1935–8).

Popular illustrated magazines in this period were Hlobus (1923–35), the magazine Znannia (1923–35), Vsesvit (1925–34), Dekada (est 1930, merged with Vsesvit in 1933), the atheist Bezvirnyk (1925–35), Molodyi bil’shovyk (1925–33), Selians’kyi zhurnal (1929–31), and, for women, Komunarka Ukraïny (1920–34) and Selianka Ukraïny (1924–31), renamed Kolhospnytsia Ukraïny (1931–41). There were numerous publications for children in the 1920s and 1930s. Among the more important were Chervoni kvity (1923–31), Bil’shovycheniata (1924–31), Oktiabr’skie vskhody (1924–30), Tuk-tuk (1929–35), Pioneriia (1931–41), Vesela bryhada (1931–7), Zhovtenia (1928–41), and, for ‘activist children,’ Na roboti (1930–3). Among satirical magazines the semimonthly Chervonyi perets’ (1927–34) was notable.

During the Stalinist terror of the 1930s most Ukrainian scholarly and literary periodicals were abolished. Scholarly institutions and editorial staffs were thoroughly purged in the early 1930s, and trusted Communit Party members—usually nonprofessional dilettantes in journalism and literature—were appointed chief editors. Nearly all non-newspaper periodical publications in Soviet Ukraine were discontinued in 1933–4, and Ukrainian magazines published elsewhere in the USSR (eg, Chervona hazeta in Rostov-na-Donu, Novym shliakhom in Krasnodar, and Sotsialistychna perebudova in the Far East) were closed down.

The mid-1930s marked the beginning of the total centralization of the press. An extensive network of raion newspapers, factory and plant broadsheets, and organs of political departments of machine-tractor stations and state farms was established. By 1940 there were 1,672 newspapers with a combined single pressrun of 6.9 million copies. Because of strict censorship, however, they provided little information about what was really happening in Soviet Ukraine or abroad. Instead they served as propaganda tools aimed at increasing labor productivity and fostering a love for Russia, Joseph Stalin, and the Communist Party. Most newspapers were one-page sheets; 85 percent of them were printed in Ukrainian in 1930, 84.9 percent in 1933, and 80 percent in 1934, as compared to 10 percent printed in Russian in 1933, 15.8 percent in 1934, and over 22 percent in 1940. Komunist and Visti VUTsVK had the largest circulations, approximately 305,000 and 375,000 respectively. More than 50 newspapers were published in each of Kyiv, Kharkiv, and Odesa.

The Ukrainization policy was abandoned during the Stalinist terror, and Russification of the press ensued; it affected not only Ukrainian periodicals but also those in Polish, Yiddish, Bulgarian, and Greek, most of which were suspended. By 1938 the number of Russian-language newspapers and magazines in Ukraine had increased substantially. A new republican newspaper, Sovetskaia Ukraina (later Pravda Ukrainy), and new oblast dailies in Russian were introduced.

After the Soviet occupation of Galicia, Volhynia (1939), and Bukovyna (1940) all existing Ukrainian periodicals there were closed down. New Soviet periodicals were introduced, eg, the daily Vil’na Ukraïna (Lviv) (est 1939) and the magazine Literatura i mystetstvo (1940–1; later Zhovten’) in Lviv, the daily Radians’ka Bukovyna (est 1940) in Chernivtsi, and 15 oblast and 49 raion newspapers.

Western Ukraine, 1918–39. In Polish-occupied Lviv the authorities prohibited the revival of Dilo. The publisher circumvented the ban by bringing out the paper under the titles Ukraïns’ka dumka (Lviv), Hromads’ka dumka, Ukraïns’kyi vistnyk, Hromads’kyi vistnyk, and Svoboda until 1923, when permission to publish Dilo was granted. It remained the leading Ukrainian daily in interwar Western Ukraine.

Under Polish rule Ukrainian periodicals were plagued by official prohibitions, strict censorship, confiscations of entire pressruns, the imposition of strict fines on and the imprisonment of editors, and financial instability. Conditions were particularly difficult for periodicals published in Volhynia, the Kholm region, Polisia, and Podlachia, which were artificially separated from Galicia by the so-called Sokal border. In 1930 new censorship regulations effectively abolished freedom of speech in those regions. Nonetheless many periodicals did appear. Newspapers published in Lutsk, the primary publications center, included Ukraïns’ke zhyttia (1922–4); Selians’ka dolia (1923–4) and Nash shliakh (1924–5), organs of the Ukrainian Social Democratic party caucus in the Polish Sejm; Hromada (Lutsk) (1922–6) and Ukraïns’ka hromada (Lutsk) (1926–9), organs of the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance (UNDO); and the pro-UNDO Volyns’ka nedilia (1928–34) and Nova doba (1936). Another pro-UNDO paper, Narid (1926–8), was published in Warsaw and distributed in Volhynia. Several Sovietophile, pro-communist papers were published in Kholm, among them Nashe zhyttia (Kholm) (1920, 1922–8), Nove zhyttia (Kholm) (1928–30), and Selians’kyi shliakh (1927–8). The weekly Nove selo (1930–9) was published in Lviv but distributed primarily in Volhynia. Papers subsidized by and supportive of the Polish government and its policies included Dosvitnia zoria (1923–7) in Volodymyr-Volynskyi; Dzvin (1923–7) in Rivne; Ukraïns’ka nyva, originally published in Warsaw (1926–8) and then moved to Lutsk (1929–36); and Volyns’ke slovo (1937–9) in Lutsk.

One of the first magazines published in Volhynia was the Orthodox semimonthly Pravoslavna Volyn’ (1922) in Kremenets. Most magazines were published in Lutsk, eg, the agricultural-cum-civic semimonthly Sil’s’kyi svit (1928–31) and monthlies Nova skyba (1933–5) and Ridnyi kolos (1933–9), the popular Orthodox monthlies Za sobornist’ (1932–5) and Shliakh (Lutsk) (1937–9), and the Sel-Rob monthly Postup (1929–30). Orthodox magazines—Na varti (1925–6), Ridna tserkva (1927–8), and Dukhovnyi siiach (1928–31)—were published by the Orthodox Consistory in Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Kremenets. Another, Tserkva i narid (Kremenets) (1935–8), was published in Kremenets. Other popular Orthodox biweeklies, Dukhovna besida (1924–5) and Nasha besida (1926–7), were published in Warsaw and distributed in Volhynia, as was the illustrated weekly Nash svit (1924–5), later published in Lutsk (1935–6). The children’s semimonthly Sonechko (1936–9) was published in Rivne.

Conditions were more favorable, although also constrained, in Galicia. All Ukrainian political parties there had their own organs. The Ukrainian Social Democratic party revived Vpered (Lviv) (1918–24), which served as a national newspaper while Dilo was banned and was later itself banned, and Zemlia i volia (1919–20, 1922–4). It also published the semimonthly Sotsiialistychna dumka (1921–4), the monthly Nova kul’tura (1923–4), and the semimonthly Svit (Lviv) (1925–9). The Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance continued publishing the weekly Svoboda (Lviv) until 1939. It was supported by the journal Polityka (1925–6). The Ukrainian Socialist Radical party revived the weekly Hromads’kyi holos (1921–39) and published the journals Proty khvyl’! (1928–9) and Zhyve slovo (1939) in Lviv. The radical nationalist Ukrainian Party of National Work published the semimonthly Zahrava (1923–4). The monarchist nationalist weekly Ukraïns’kyi holos (Peremyshl) (1919–32) in Peremyshl became an Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) organ in 1929. The OUN also published the Lviv weeklies Nash klych (Lviv) (1933), Visti (Lviv) (1933–4), Holos natsiï (1936–7), and Holos (1937–9). The Ukrainian Labor party had the daily Nash prapor (1923–4) and Prapor (1924). The Ukrainian People's Labor party had Ukraïns’ka rada (1924–5) and Rada (Lviv) (1925–34). In 1927 Rada became the organ of the Ukrainian Party of Labor, which also published Pratsia (1927–34) until 1933, when it became an organ of the clandestine Communist Party of Western Ukraine. Other pro-OUN papers were Ridnyi grunt (1935–7) and Frontom (1936–7) in Lviv, Proryv (1936–7) in Peremyshl, Homin baseinu (1937) and Homin kraiu (1937–8) in Drohobych, and Avangard (1937–8) in Kolomyia. The moderate nationalist Front of National Unity published the daily Ukraïns’ki visty (1935–9), the weekly Bat’kivshchyna (1934–9), and the quarterly Peremoha (1933–9). Conservative Catholic and nationalist views were expressed in Nova zoria (1926–39) in Lviv and Beskyd (1928–33) and Ukraïns’kyi Beskyd (1933–9) in Peremyshl. The weekly Meta (1931–9) represented a more liberal Catholic outlook. Galician supporters of the hetmanite movement published the monthly Khliborobs’kyi shliakh (1932–5). A pro-Polish conciliatory viewpoint was represented by Ridnyi krai (Lviv) (1920–3) and the weekly Selianyn (1929–35). The Sovietophile and pro-communist press was particularly strong in the 1920s; it published the newspapers Svitlo (Lviv) (1925–8), Syla (1930–2), Nasha zemlia (Lviv) (1930–2), Sel’-Rob (1927–32), and the clandestine Volia naroda (1921–8) and Zemlia i volia (KPZU) (1925–9). Russophile newspapers, eg, Zemlia i volia (1928–39) and the moribund Russkii golos (Lviv) (1922–39), had a declining influence. Nonpartisan newspapers included the family weekly Nedilia (1928–39); the daily Chas (1931–2), edited by Mykola Holubets; and particularly the newspapers and magazines Novyi chas (1923–39), Narodna sprava (1928–39), the newspaper Nash prapor (1932–9), and Nash lemko (1934–9), published by Ivan Tyktor’s publishing house, Ukrainska Presa.

Much of the women's press also developed along partisan lines. Notable periodicals were the pro-UNDO Zhinocha dolia (1925–39), the organ of the Union of Ukrainian Women Zhinka (1935–8), the radical Zhinochyi holos (1931–9), and the housekeeping magazine Nova khata (1925–39).

Ukrainian literary, art, and scholarly periodicals reached a high level of development in interwar Galicia. The first literary journal to appear in Lviv after the First World War was Mytusa (1922). Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk was re-established in 1922. Edited by Dmytro Dontsov, it united all outstanding Western Ukrainian and émigré writers and even published Soviet contributions. After being renamed the journal Vistnyk in 1933, it served until 1939 as the main forum for Dontsov’s integral nationalist ideology and exerted considerable influence on the views of the 1930s generation in Western Ukraine and abroad. The magazines Dazhboh (1932–5), Obriï (1936–7), and Naperedodni (1937–8) were ideologically akin to Vistnyk. Catholic writers contributed to Dzvony (1931–9). The semimonthly Nazustrich (1934–9) was an important moderate magazine. Marxist and Sovietophile writers contributed to the monthlies Nova kul’tura (1923–6), which was renamed Kul’tura (1927–31), and Vikna (1927–32), Novi shliakhy (1929–32), and Krytyka (1933). Notable journals in the arts were Ukraïns’ke mystetstvo (1926) and the avant-garde Mystetstvo (Lviv) (1932–6), the music journal Ukraïns’ka muzyka (1937–9), the photography journal Svitlo i tin’ (1933–9), and the theater journals Teatral’ne mystetstvo (1922–5) and Masovyi teatr (1930–2).

A number of scholarly periodicals were published in Lviv: the theology and church history quarterly Bohosloviia (1923–39), the cultural history magazine Stara Ukraïna (1924–5), the Slavic studies journal Slovo (1936–8), the journal of Ukrainian studies S’ohochasne i mynule (1939), the jurisprudence quarterly Zhyttia i pravo, and the bibliographical monthly Ukraïns’ka knyha (1937–9). The widely read monthly magazine Litopys Chervonoï kalyny (1929–39) was devoted to the history of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and the Ukrainian Galician Army. Other popular magazines were the Prosvita society’s monthly Zhyttia i znannia (1927–39) and the regional studies magazines Litopys Boikivshchyny (1931–9) and Nasha bat’kivshchyna (Lviv) (1937–9).

The religious press also flourished in Western Ukraine. Notable Catholic periodicals were the quarterly Dobryi pastyr (1931–9) in Stanyslaviv, the quarterly Katolyts’ka aktsiia (1934–9) in Lviv, the Basilian monastic orders’ monthly Misionar (est 1897) in Zhovkva, Sivach (1936–9), and the very popular weekly (circulation 85,000) Khrystos nasha syla (1936–9) in Lviv. The co-operative press and agricultural periodicals were also popular. Particularly so were the weekly Hospodars’ko-kooperatyvnyi chasopys (1921–44), the magazine Sil’s’kyi hospodar (1926–39, 1940–4), the theoretical monthly of the Ukrainian co-operative movement Kooperatyvna respublyka (1928–39), the educational monthly Kooperatyvna rodyna (1934–9), and the dairyman’s monthly Kooperatyvne molocharstvo (1926–39). Several pedagogical periodicals were also published. Adult education was promoted in the Prosvita society’s revived Pys’mo z Prosvity (1921–2) and Narodnia prosvita (1923–7), and in Samoosvitnyk (1937–9).

Children’s magazines were popular in interwar Western Ukraine, especially because the regime restricted the activities of Ukrainian schools. The most important were Svit dytyny (1919–39); the children’s magazine Moloda Ukraïna (1923–6), for teen-agers; Dzvinochok (1931–9); the Catholic Nash pryiatel’ (1922–39); the Plast Ukrainian Youth Association’s Molode zhyttia (1921–30); and, following the prohibition of Plast, the monthly Vohni (1931–8). Notable organs of student press were the Union of Ukrainian Nationalist Yout’'s Smoloskypy (1927–9); the Catholic Postup (Lviv) (1921–30), Ukraïns’ke iunatstvo (1933–9), and Lytsarstvo Presviatoi Divy Mariï (1936–9); and the Union of Ukrainian Progressive Yout’'s Kameniari (Lviv) (1932–9). With the political ascendance of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in the 1930s, the centralist student organs Students’kyi shliakh (1931–4) and Students’kyi vistnyk (1935–9) promoted its ideology. Periodicals promoting sports and an athletic lifestyle were Visty z Luhu (1926–39), Sokil’s’ki visty (1928–39), Sportovi visty (1931), Hotovi (1934–5), Sport (1936–7), and Zmah (1937–8).

Altogether, in the years 1918–39, 834 Ukrainian periodicals and 138 calendar-almanacs were published under Polish rule. Despite adverse political conditions they improved considerably, grew stronger financially, and became more popular and varied in political orientation and subject matter. Some newspapers and magazines reached relatively high circulation figures. The number of dailies increased from one to three. Weeklies were the most widespread publications, and their largest readership was in rural areas. But the absence of a Ukrainian press agency and the shortage of professionally trained journalists contributed to shortcomings in the Ukrainian press, such as inadequate news coverage and an excess of patriotic zeal, by comparison with the numerous Polish papers and the Jewish daily Chwila.

Conditions were highly unfavorable in Romanian-ruled Bukovyna. The only Ukrainian daily there was Chas (Chernivtsi) (1928–40) in Chernivtsi. Other newspapers were the Social Democratic Party of Bukovyna’s Volia naroda (1919–21), Robitnyk (1919–23), Vpered (1923), Hromada (1923), and Zemlia i volia (1927); the Sovietophile Narod (1923); the Ukrainian National party’s Ridnyi krai (Chernivtsi) (1926–30) and Rada (Chernivtsi) (1934–8); and the pro-OUN Samostiinist’ (1934–7). The Romanian regime was supported in Khliborobs’ka pravda (1924–38) and Pravda (Chernivtsi) (1930–6). Other, short-lived newspapers were Narodnyi holos (1921, 1923), Zoria (1923–5), Zemlia (1925–6), Narod (1926), and Narodnia syla (1932–4). Journals published were the pro-OUN literary monthly Samostiina dumka (1931–7), which had many émigré contributors; the student literary monthly Promin’ (Chernivtsi) (1921–3); and Ukraïns’ka lastivka (1933–9), for children. Only 10 Ukrainian periodicals were published in Bukovyna in 1936. Bessarabia had no Ukrainian periodicals.

In Transcarpathia, Czechoslovakia’s democratic government did not hinder the development of the Ukrainian press. Overcoming the region’s underdeveloped national consciousness, the press, gradually displacing Russophile periodicals, became stronger and more influential; it numbered 23 periodicals by 1936. The leading Ukrainophile newspaper was the revived weekly newspaper Nauka (1919–22), which was renamed Svoboda (Uzhhorod) (1922–38) as the organ of the Christian People's party, and then Nova svoboda (1938–9) as the daily of the Ukrainian National Alliance (Transcarpathia) in Carpatho-Ukraine. Other important papers were the semiofficial Rusyn (1920–2), the Ruthenian Agrarian party’s Rus’ka nyva (1920–4), the Subcarpathian Social Democratic party’s Narod (Uzhhorod) (1920–1) and Vpered (Uzhhorod) (1922–38), the Czechoslovak Agrarian party’s Selo (Mukachevo) (1920–4) and Zemlia i volia (Mukachevo) (1934–8), the independent Ukraïns’ke slovo (Uzhhorod) (1932–8), the ‘Rusynophile’ Nedilia (Transcarpathia) (1935–44), and the pro-OUN Narodnia syla (1936–8) and Nastup (1938–9). The Russophile papers Russkaia zemlia (1919–38), Russkii vestnik (1923–38), and Karpatorusskii golos (1932–4, 1938–44); the communist Karpats’ka pravda (1920–33, 1935–8); and lesser Ukrainophile, Russophile, and Magyarophile papers also appeared. The most important paper in the Prešov region was Russkoe slovo (Prešov) (1924–38). Other important periodicals in Transcarpathia were the Sovietophile monthly Nasha zemlia (Uzhhorod) (1927–9); the ethnographic-pedagogical journal Pidkarpats’ka Rus’ (1923–36); the pedagogical periodicals Uchytel’ (Uzhhorod) (1920–36), Zoria (Uzhhorod) (1921–31), Narodnaia shkola (1921–38), Uchytel’s’kyi holos (1930–8), and Nasha shkola (Mukachevo) (1935–8); the Mukachevo Prosvita society’s Svitlo (Mukachevo) (1933–8); the religious monthlies Dushpastyr (1923–41) and Blahovisnyk (1921–44, 1946–9); the children’s magazines Pchilka (1923–32) and Nash ridnyi krai (1922–38); and the Plast Ukrainian Youth Associations’ journal Plastun (1923–31, 1934–7).

 In interwar Transcarpathia 62 periodicals were published in Ukrainian, 25 in the yazychiie, 39 in Russian, 34 in Hungarian, 13 in Czech, and 4 in Yiddish. In 1938–9 in Carpatho-Ukraine, there were 11 Ukrainian periodicals, 3 Russian, 1 Czech, and 1 Czech-Ukrainian.

The émigré press in Europe, 1920–40. The development of the Ukrainian press in interwar Western and Central Europe was connected directly to the mass emigration from Soviet-occupied Ukraine. Under the difficult conditions of émigré life, publications were widely dispersed and short-lived. They still managed, however, to exert considerable influence on developments in foreign-occupied Western Ukraine and Soviet Ukraine, which they reached through both legal and illegal means.

The main centers of the Ukrainian émigré press were Berlin, Warsaw, Prague, and Paris. Published in Berlin were Nove slovo (1920), the organ of the Ukrainian People’s party; Ukraïns’ke slovo (Berlin) (1921–3), a pro-hetmanite weekly and then daily; and the weekly Litopys polityky, pys’menstva i mystetstva (1923–4). The newspaper Ukraïns’kyi prapor was published in Vienna (1919–23) and then in Berlin (1923–32); it represented the views of the Government-in-exile of the Western Ukrainian National Republic. Also published in Vienna were Boritesia – Poborete (1920–2) of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries, the Sovietophile monthly Nova hromada (Vienna) (1923–5), the Foreign Group of the Ukrainian Communist party’s journal Nova doba (Vienna) (1920–1), and the nonpartisan Volia (Vienna) (1919–21). Published in Prague were Sotsiialistychna dumka (1921–3) of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' party and Trudova Ukraïna (1932–9) of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries. In Warsaw, Yevmen Lukasevych, with the help of the Government-in-exile of the Ukrainian National Republic, published the daily Ukraïns’ka trybuna (Warsaw) (1921–2). The semiofficial weekly of the UNR Government-in-exile Tryzub (1925–40), the Sovietophile semimonthly, later weekly, Ukraïns’ki visty (Paris) (1926–9), and the nationalist weekly Ukraïns’ke slovo (Paris) (est 1933) were published in Paris.

Publications for covert distribution in Western Ukraine included the newspaper of the underground Ukrainian Military Organization, Surma (1927–34), in Berlin (1927–8) and in Kaunas, Lithuania (1928–34); the ideological organ of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Rozbudova natsiï (1928–34) in Prague; and the organ of the Communist Party of Western Ukraine Nasha pravda in Vienna (1921–3) and Czechoslovakia (after 1934).

The literary journals Na perelomi (1920) and Vyzvolennia (1923) were published in Vienna. The most prominent and influential literary and political journal, Nova Ukraïna (Prague) (1922–8), was published in Prague, as were a number of scholarly serials and the student journals Ukraïns’kyi student (1920–4) and Students’kyi visnyk (1923–31), the organ of the Central Union of Ukrainian Students. A literary and arts bimonthly, My (1933–9), was published in Warsaw, as were Ivan Ohiienko’s scholarly-literary Nasha kul’tura (Warsaw) (1935–7) and philological Ridna mova (1933–6). Military affairs were the subject of the journal Tabor, published in Kalisz (1923–4, 1927–30) and in Warsaw (1930–9).

New Ukrainian press and information bureaus abroad published many periodicals in several Western languages, to inform the European public about the Ukrainian question. Altogether, 55 émigré periodicals—6 newspapers and 49 journals—were published in Europe in 1936. Two others appeared in Manchuria. By 1939 the number had dropped to 37.

The Second World War. Following the Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine in 1939, all Ukrainian periodicals were closed down, and many journalists were repressed. Only in the Nazi-occupied Generalgouvernement in Poland and abroad could the Ukrainian ‘national’ press function. The new Ukrainske Vydavnytstvo (Cracow) publishing house in Cracow published the daily Krakivs’ki visti (1940–5) and a weekly version, the monthly Iliustrovani visti (1940–1), and the weekly Kholms’ka zemlia (1942–4). These newspapers were distributed mainly in the Ukrainian parts of the Generalgouvernement—the Lemko region, Sian region, Kholm region, and Podlachia—and in Galicia after the expansion of the Generalgouvernement in 1941. In Cracow and later in Lviv, Ukrainske Vydavnytstvo also published a magazine for teen-agers, Doroha (1940–4), the literary magazine Vechirnia hodyna (1942–4), the popular monthly Nashi dni (1941–4), the co-operative monthly Sil’s’kyi hospodar (1940–4), and the children’s magazine Mali druzi (1940–4). After the Nazi authorities banned the new Lviv daily Ukraïns’ki shchodenni visti (1941), L’vivs’ki visti (1941–4) served as the official daily in Galicia. A weekly, Ridna zemlia (1941–4), was also published. These newspapers were not allowed to circulate outside the Generalgouvernement.

The early phase of the German occupation of central and eastern Ukraine in 1941 saw a great upsurge in nationalist publishing activity. Soviet newspapers had ceased publication or were banned, and new newspapers were founded in virtually every oblast and raion center. After the creation of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine and the transfer of power to Nazi civilian authorities, however, they were either shut down or turned into provincial and local Nazi organs, which were strictly controlled and censored. The editors of the nationalist Kyiv daily Ukraïns’ke slovo (1941) and literary magazine Litavry (Kyiv) (1941), for example, were arrested and later executed, and Ukraïns’ke slovo became the pro-Nazi Nove ukraïns’ke slovo (1941–3). The initially independent weekly Volyn’ (1941–4) in Rivne was curtailed (see Volyn publishing house). Greater freedom of publication was allowed in areas close to the battlefront. Kharkiv, for example, had the nationalist daily Nova Ukraïna (1941–3) and the literary journal Ukraïns’kyi zasiv (1942–3).

No Ukrainian press was allowed in Romanian-occupied Transnistria. The weekly Nashe zhyttia (Bucharest) (1940–2), however, was published in Bucharest. Most Ukrainian periodicals published in Nazi-occupied Europe, including Warsaw and Paris, were suspended. Those allowed to continue publishing in Berlin and Prague, including Ukraïns’kyi visnyk (Berlin) (1936–45), Ukraïns’ka diisnist’ (1939–45), Natsiia v pokhodi (1939–41), Proboiem (1933–43), and Nastup (1938–44), were banned in the Generalgouvernement and Reichskommissariat Ukraine.

The millions of Ukrainian laborers, Ostarbeiter, and prisoners of war in Germany proper were served by several state-controlled periodicals: the biweekly Holos (1940–5), which had a circulation of 250,000 in 1944; the weeklies Ukraïnets’ (1942–5), Visti (Berlin) (1942–5), Na shakhti (1942–5), Zemlia (1942–5), and Nova doba (Berlin) (1941–5); and the magazine Dozvillia (1942–5). Ukrainian units in the German forces—the Ukrainian Liberation Army and the Division Galizien—had their own newspapers, Ukraïns’kyi dobrovolets’ (1942–5), Za Ukraïnu (1943), and Do peremohy (1943–5). Altogether, over 300 Ukrainian periodicals, most of them local papers, were published in German-occupied Ukraine and Europe. The only truly free Ukrainian press during the Second World War consisted of 20-odd clandestine political, military, children’s, and satirical publications of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (eg, Ideia i chyn [1942–6]), the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (eg, Do zbroï and Vil’na Ukraïna), and the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council.

During the German occupation several Soviet Ukrainian newspapers and journals, eg, the daily Radians’ka Ukraïna, Pravda Ukrainy, and Literatura i mystetstvo (see Literaturna Ukraïna), were evacuated and published in Bashkiria or in Moscow. A number of Soviet underground and partisan papers and bulletins were distributed in German-occupied Ukraine during the war.

Soviet Ukraine after 1945. The postwar Soviet Ukrainian press continued developing according to the parameters set in 1938: centralization, Party control, and Russification. The press remained basically a tool of the Communist Party, although some concessions to Ukrainian patriotism were made, and new Ukrainian-language periodicals were introduced during a short period of relative liberalization in 1945–6 and during a somewhat longer period in 1954 after Joseph Stalin’s death. Newspapers—usually limited to four pages per issue—were not allowed to give readers objective information about external or domestic developments, but merely reprinted official statements and accounts. Articles and reviews were censored to ensure conformity with the Party line. All sanctioned periodicals were official publications of the Party, the government, Komsomol, individual ministries, trade unions, or other state or public organizations. The entire press was until around 1990 under the jurisdiction of the Department of Propaganda and Agitation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and the Press Committee of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR. Party and government press editors in chief acted as censors and were appointed exclusively from among loyal Party members and trained at special journalism schools run by the Party.

In the last years under Joseph Stalin, in the late 1940s and early 1950s, many Ukrainian-language periodicals were discontinued. At the same time Russian-language equivalents of certain Ukrainian-language newspapers and journals were established. Usually they were allotted larger pressruns than their Ukrainian counterparts; their greater availability and, therefore, greater popularity served as a justification for discontinuing the Ukrainian-language editions. After Stalin’s death many new newspapers—including republican and Komsomol oblast ones—and academic, scientific, and cultural journals and other serials were established. Many of the latter in the pure, applied, technical, and medical sciences, however, were published only in Russian. Between 1950 and 1960 the number of Ukrainian-language journals increased from 27 to 54, while Russian-language journals increased from 5 to 26. From late 1959 on, existing separate Ukrainian- and Russian-language Party newspapers in oblast centers were amalgamated, and single newspapers that were published in parallel Ukrainian and Russian editions thereby created. In 1962 it became possible for someone living outside the Ukrainian SSR in the USSR to subscribe to republican-level periodicals, something that until then had not been allowed.

Because of Soviet nationality policy, in which Russification had been the key component, the Ukrainian-language press was not accorded the same status or privileges as the Russian-language press in the Ukrainian SSR. In 1959 the population of Soviet Ukraine was 77 percent Ukrainian and 17 percent Russian. Between 1954 and 1960, however, the combined pressrun of Ukrainian-language journals doubled, whereas that of Russian-language journals increased 2.5 times while being allotted over 36 times the number of printed sheets. The number of Ukrainian-language newspapers increased from 784 to 814, while Russian-language newspapers increased from 226 to 378; their combined pressruns increased 168 percent and 154 percent respectively. In 1965 the combined pressrun of Ukrainian-language newspapers was 72 percent of the single-issue total and 71 percent of the annual total in Ukraine, while that of Russian-language newspapers was 27 and 28 percent respectively.

The situation of the Ukrainian-language press worsened in the 1970s and 1980s. As a result of official all-Soviet policies, the number of Ukrainian-language journals increased from 54 in 1960 to 63 in 1970 and then dropped to 51 in 1988, while Russian-language journals in the Ukrainian SSR increased from 26 in 1960 to 39 in 1970, 44 in 1975, and 55 in 1988. The number of Ukrainian-language newspapers (excluding collective-farm papers) increased from 919 in 1959 to 1,261 in 1988, while Russian-language newspapers increased from 381 in 1959 to 520 (29 percent) in 1988. From the mid-1970s on, many Ukrainian and other non-Russian periodicals in the USSR were not granted annual increases in their pressruns or subscription allotments, and by 1980 most of them had circulations that had declined in absolute terms from their 1975 levels. Between 1969 and 1980 the percentage of journals published in Russian by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR increased from 19 to 76.2, while the proportion of the Ukrainian-language journals decreased accordingly, and had fallen to 16.3 percent by 1989. By 1984 the pressruns of most Ukrainian-language literary journals and scholarly journals were nearly half of what they were in 1975. In 1988 the combined pressrun of the Ukrainian-language newspapers was 66 percent of the single-issue total and 64 percent of the annual total in Ukraine, while that of the Russian-language papers was 33.4 and 35 percent respectively.

This discrimination was even more apparent when statistics for the Russian and Ukrainian populations of the USSR are compared with those of the Soviet press. In 1989 the USSR population was 50.8 percent Russian and 15.4 percent Ukrainian. In 1988, however, 65.7 percent of all Soviet newspapers were published in Russian, but only 14.7 percent (1,261 newspapers) were published in Ukrainian. The pressruns of the Russian-language newspapers comprised 79.6 percent of the single-issue total and 83.5 percent of the annual Soviet total, while Ukrainian-language papers comprised 7.4 percent and 6.0 percent respectively. Although millions of Ukrainians—over 6.7 million in 1989 (11 million, according to Volodymyr Kubijovyč)—lived in other Soviet republics, not one Ukrainian-language periodical was published in the USSR outside the Ukrainian SSR.

Newspapers. In 1980, 19 Ukrainian republic-level newspapers for the general public or for specific occupational or social groups were published. Not one was a daily. (The only daily in the entire USSR was Pravda (Moscow) in Moscow.) Five came out six times a week; 2, five times a week; 3, three times a week; 4, twice a week; and 5, once a week. Their total single printing was nearly 8.1 million copies, approximately the same as that of a single edition of an average all-Union daily newspaper. Their circulation ranged from 380,000 for a paper published three times a week to 4.1 million for a weekly. The republican newspapers were: the CC CPU, Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR, and Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR organs: the daily Radians’ka Ukraïna (est 1926, called Komunist until 1943 and Demokratychna Ukraïna after 1991) and its Russian counterpart, Pravda Ukrainy (est 1938, called Sovetskaia Ukraina until 1944); the CC CPU papers Robitnycha hazeta (Kyiv) (est 1957), Rabochaia gazeta (in Russian, est 1957), and Sil’s’ki visti (est 1924, called Radians’ke selo until 1933, then Kolhospne selo until 1939 and in 1949–65); the Komsomol’s Molod’ Ukraïny (est 1925, called Komsomolets’ Ukraïny until 1943) and Komsomol’skoe znamia (in Russian, est 1938, called Stalinskoe plemia until 1956); the Writers' Union of Ukraine’s Literaturna Ukraïna (est 1927, called Literaturna hazeta until 1962); the Ministry of Culture’s Kul’tura i zhyttia (est 1945, called Radians’ke mystetstvo until 1955, then Radians’ka kul’tura until 1965); the Ministry of Education’s Radians’ka osvita (Kyiv) (est 1940, renamed Osvita in 1991); the Pioneer Organization of Ukraine’s Zirka (est 1943) and Iunyi leninets (in Russian, est 1922, called Iunyi Spartak until 1923 and Iunyi pioner in 1938–41); the Physical Culture and Sport Committee’s Sportyvna hazeta (est 1934, called Radians’kyi sport until 1964); the Voluntary Society for Assistance to the Army, Air Force, and Navy’s Patriot Bat’kivshchyny (est 1939); the State Publishing, Printing, and Book Trade Affairs Committee’s Druh chytacha (est 1960); the Ukraina Society’s News from Ukraine and Visti z Ukraïny (est 1960); the Ukrainian Hearing Society’s Nashe zhyttia (est 1967); the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ Radians’kyi militsioner (est 1955) and Sovetskii militsioner (in Russian, est 1974) replaced in 1991 by Militseis’kii kur'ier; and the Chief River Fleet Administration’s Vodnyk (est 1919).

The number of oblast newspapers grew from 53 in 1950 to 78 in 1990. In 1975, 37 were oblast Party committee and soviet organs, and 25 were Komsomol committee organs. They resembled the republican newspapers in form and content, but also covered oblast affairs and local news. None could be sent abroad. Thirteen came out six times a week; 27, five times a week; 30, three times a week; 1, twice a week; and 1, once a week. Their total single printing was nearly 7.3 million.

The oblast Party newspapers were published in parallel Ukrainian and Russian editions in Crimea oblast, Dnipropetrovsk oblast, Donetsk oblast, Luhansk oblast, Lviv oblast, Mykolaiv oblast, Odesa oblast, Transcarpathia oblast, and Zaporizhia oblast. In 1980 the pressruns of the Russian editions were substantially higher than those of the Ukrainian in the most populous and urbanized oblasts of Ukraine—Donetsk oblast (by 614 percent), Luhansk oblast (by 417 percent), Odesa oblast (by 299 percent in 1975), Dnipropetrovsk oblast (by 219 percent), Zaporizhia oblast (by 215 percent), and Kharkiv oblast (by 212 percent). The oblast papers with the five largest single-issue pressruns were published in Russian: Sotsialisticheskii Donbass (362,00 copies) in Donetsk, Krymskaia pravda (280,000) in Simferopol, Industrial’noe Zaporozh’e (257,00) in Zaporizhia, Voroshilovgradskaia pravda (250,000) in Voroshylovhrad (Luhansk), and Znamia kommunizma (236,000) in Odesa. The next largest was the Ukrainian-language Vil’na Ukraïna (Lviv) (230,500) in Lviv. The papers with the smallest pressruns were, with the exception of the Hungarian-language Kárpáti igaz szó (38,000) in Uzhhorod and the Moldavian-language Zorile Bucovinei (26,000) in Chernivtsi, the Ukrainian-language editions in Donetsk (59,000), Voroshylovhrad (60,000), and Kharkiv (62,000).

In 1980, 23 of the 26 oblast Komsomol papers were published in Ukrainian three times a week. Only those in Crimea oblast and Donetsk oblast were published in Russian, and the latter, Komsomolets Donbassa, was the only one published five times a week. The Komsomol paper of Transcarpathia oblast also appeared in a parallel Hungarian-language edition.

The number of ‘city’ newspapers—organs of Party committees in municipalities officially classified as cities (mista)—grew from 55 in 1950 to 60 in 1960, 80 in 1970, 108 in 1980, and 153 in 1990. Their news coverage was limited to their own cities, and they are not sold outside them or available abroad. In 1980, 40 of the 108 city papers were in Russian; they were published in Voroshylovhrad oblast (11 of 13 city papers), Dnipropetrovsk oblast (2 of 8), Donetsk oblast (14 of 19), the Crimea oblast (all 7), Odesa oblast (4 of 5), Kharkiv oblast (1 of 5), and Sumy oblast (1 of 5). In 1980, 62 of the city papers appeared four times a week; 29, three times a week; 11, five times a week; and 6, six times a week. Those published two or three times a week had single-issue pressruns in the 10,000 to 30,000 range. Thirteen papers published five or six times a week—eight of them in Russian—had much higher pressruns. They were Vechernii Donetsk (230,000 copies in 1980) in Donetsk, Vechirnii Kyïv (200,000) in Kyiv, Dnepr vechernii (162,900; formerly the Ukrainian-language Dnipro vechirnii [1972–6]) in Dnipropetrovsk, Prapor komunizmu (133,000) in Kyiv (renamed Kyïvs’kyi visnyk in 1990), Vecherniaia Odessa (123,000) in Odesa, Chervonyi hirnyk (116,000) in Kryvyi Rih, Priazovskii rabochii (107,000) in Zhdanov (Mariupol), Makeevskii rabochii (85,000) in Makiivka, Vechirnii Kharkiv (84,000) in Kharkiv, Slava Sevastopolia (75,000) in Sevastopol, Kochegarka (64,500) in Horlivka, Dzerzhynets’ (53,000) in Dniprodzerzhynsk, and Kerchenskii rabochii (41,500) in Kerch. Two oblasts, Chernivtsi oblast and Ternopil oblast, did not have any city papers, but only oblast and raion organs. Only Kyiv had two city papers, both appearing in a Ukrainian and a Russian version.

Raion newspapers were published by the Party committee in each raion. Usually two pages long, they contained materials of interest to the Party organization and some local news, and were not available outside the raion. Most appeared three times a week in a pressrun of approximately 5,000 to 20,000 copies. In 1980, of the 480 raion papers in Ukraine, 58 were published in Russian: all 14 raion papers in Crimea oblast, 12 of 19 in Donetsk oblast, 12 of 19 in Voroshylovhrad oblast, 9 of 27 in Odesa oblast, 4 of 18 in Sumy oblast, 3 of 18 in Zaporizhia oblast, 3 of 27 in Kharkiv oblast, and 1 of 22 in Chernihiv oblast. Three of 13 raion papers in Chernivtsi oblast and one in Odesa oblast appeared in Moldavian, and 3 of 16 in Transcarpathia oblast appeared in Hungarian.

Collective-farm bulletins were also published in Ukraine, mostly as monthlies. Their number grew from 146 in 1956 to 2,203 in 1959, and then declined to 2,074 in 1960, 1,271 in 1970, 763 in 1975, and 311 in 1990. Like the bulletins (781 in 1988) of individual local industrial enterprises and higher educational institutions, they were not listed in official registers of the Soviet press.

Moscow’s all-Union Russian-language newspapers were distributed widely in Ukraine, where they were telexed and printed in Kyiv, Kharkiv, and other cities. In 1962, for example, when the 934 Soviet Ukrainian newspapers had a combined single-issue pressrun of over 10 million copies, an additional 10 million copies of the all-Union papers were also circulated daily in Ukraine.

Newspapers were published in every raion of Ukraine. In terms of their combined single-issue pressrun, however, in 1988 the top five producers were the city of Kyiv, with 35.6 percent; Donetsk oblast, with 7.3 percent; Dnipropetrovsk oblast, with 4.9 percent; Lviv oblast, with 4.0 percent; and Odesa oblast, with 3.9 percent.

In 1988, 4.1 percent of all non-newspaper periodicals in the USSR were published in Ukraine. Of the 107 Soviet Ukrainian journals—7.5 percent of all journals published in the USSR—1 was a weekly, 3 were semimonthlies, 61 were monthlies, 1 was a semiquarterly, 39 were bimonthlies, and 2 were quarterlies.

Journals and serials. Literary journals constituted the journal category with the largest combined pressrun; in 1988 there were nine with a combined pressrun of over 55.5 million copies, or 32 percent of the total pressrun of all non-newspaper periodicals published in Ukraine. The journals were the Writers' Union of Ukraine’s monthlies Vitchyzna, Dnipro (Kyiv), Vsesvit, Kyïv, and, in Russian, Raduga (formerly Sovetskaia Ukraina [1951–63]) in Kyiv, Prapor (Kharkiv) (renamed Berezil’ in 1990) in Kharkiv, Zhovten’ (renamed Dzvin in 1990) in Lviv, Donbas/Donbass in Donetsk, and the Komsomol’s monthly Ranok (Kyiv) (formerly Zmina [1953–65]) in Kyiv.

Journals dealing with politics, society, and the economy had the second largest combined pressrun; in 1988 there were 21 such journals with a combined pressrun of over 47.1 million copies, or 27.3 percent of the total pressrun of all non-newspaper periodicals. The major political journals were published by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine in parallel Ukrainian and Russian editions: the ideological monthly Komunist Ukraïny/Kommunist Ukrainy and the agitation and propaganda biweekly Pid praporom leninizmu/Pod znamenem leninizma (formerly Bloknot ahitatora [1944–69]), renamed Polityka i chas/Politika i vremia in 1991.

In 1988 the remaining pressrun of all non-newspaper periodicals was divided among the 5 children’s magazines (15 percent); the Ukrainian Republican Council of Trade Unions and Writers' Union of Ukraine’s monthly for women, Radians’ka zhinka (renamed Zhinka in 1991; 15 percent); 6 journals dealing with culture or education (3.9 percent); 5 devoted to the arts (3.1 percent); 4 journals for young people (1.8 percent), the most important of which was the monthly Znannia ta pratsia (renamed Nauka-fantastyka in 1990); the organ of the Russian Orthodox church in Ukraine, Pravoslavnyi visnyk, and a monthly of atheist propaganda, Liudyna i svit (formerly Voiovnychyi ateist [1960–4], 1.2 percent in 1965); 5 agricultural journals (0.7 percent); 20 technical journals (0.6 percent); the only sports magazine, the monthly Start (formerly Fizkul’tura i sport [1957–65], 0.6 percent); 7 medical journals (0.3 percent); 1 each in linguistics and literature studies (0.2 percent); and 25 natural science journals (0.1 percent).

The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR published a monthly informational journal, Visnyk Akademiï nauk Ukraïns’koï RSR. It also published several academic journals in the humanities and social sciences: the history monthly Ukraïns’kyi istorychnyi zhurnal; the literature studies monthly Radians’ke literaturoznavstvo (renamed Slovo i chas in 1990); the jurisprudence monthly Radians’ke pravo (renamed Pravo Ukraïny in 1991)—the most widely distributed Academy of Sciences journal—copublished with the Ministry of Justice and Supreme Court of the Ukrainian SSR; the economics monthly Ekonomika Radians’koï Ukraïny (renamed Ekonomika Ukraïny in 1991) and its Russian parallel, Ekonomika Sovetskoi Ukrainy (Ekonomika Ukrainy); the folklore, folk art, and ethnography bimonthly Narodna tvorchist’ ta etnohrafiia; the linguistics bimonthly Movoznavstvo; and the philosophy bimonthly Filosofs’ka dumka, which in 1989 became the philosophy and sociology monthly Filosofs’ka i sotsiolohichna dumka, also published in a parallel Russian edition, Filosofskaia i sotsiologicheskaia mysl’. An annual (now semiannual) serial, Nauka i kul’tura: Ukraïna, was copublished from 1967 by the Academy of Sciences and the Znannia Society. Znannia has also published three popular monthlies, Nauka i suspil’stvo (formerly Nauka i zhyttia [1951–65]), the aforementioned Liudyna i svit, and Trybuna lektora (renamed Trybuna in 1990).

Journals published by Ukraine’s governmental bodies included the weekly organ Vidomosti Verkhovnoï Rady Ukraïns’koï Radians’koï Sotsialistychnoï Respubliky (renamed Vidomosti Verkhovnoï Rady Ukraïny in 1991), which also appeared in a parallel Russian edition; the Ministry of Culture’s cultural-educational monthly, Sotsialistychna kul’tura (renamed Ukraïns’ka kul’tura in 1991), and, from 1970, bimonthlies devoted to Ukrainian art, music, and theater, Obrazotvorche mystetstvo (formerly Mystetstvo [1954–69]), Muzyka, and Ukraïns’kyi teatr; four pedagogical monthlies in Ukrainian—Radians’ka shkola (renamed Ridna shkola in 1991), Doshkil’ne vykhovannia, Ukraïns’ka mova i literatura v shkoli, and Pochatkova shkola—and a bimonthly in Russian, Russkii iazyk i literatura v shkolakh USSR (est 1976; renamed Russkii iazyk i literatura v srednikh uchebnykh zavedeniiakh USSR in 1984), published by the Ministry of Education; and a monthly devoted to film, Novyny kinoekranu, published by the State Cinematographic Committee and the Union of Cinematographers of Ukraine.

Among technical journals and scientific journals, most were published by the institutes and divisions of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. After the late 1970s only two of them, Dopovidi Akademiï nauk Ukraïns’koï RSR (renamed Dopovidi Akademiï nauk Ukraïny in 1991) and the botany bimonthly Ukraïns’kyi botanichnyi zhurnal, were published in Ukrainian. In 1990, Academy of Sciences’ journals published in Russian were the monthlies Avtomaticheskaia svarka, Fizika nizkikh temperatur, Poroshkovaia metallurgiia, Prikladnaia mekhanika, Problemy prochnosti, Ukrainskii fizicheskii zhurnal, and Ukrainskii khimicheskii zhurnal; the bimonthlies Avtomatika (see Avtomatyka), Biopolimery i kletka, Eksperimental’naia onkologiia, Elektronnoe modelirovanie, Fiziko-khimicheskaia mekhanika materialov, Fiziologicheskii zhurnal, Fiziologiia i biokhimiia kul’turnykh rastenii, Geofizicheskii zhurnal, Geologicheskii zhurnal, Gidrobiologicheskii zhurnal, Khimicheskaia tekhnologiia, Khimiia i tekhnologiia vody, Kibernetika, Kinematika i fizika nebesnykh tel, Metallofizika, Mikrobiologicheskii zhurnal, Mineralogicheskii zhurnal, Morskoi gidrofizicheskii zhurnal, Neirofiziologiia, Promyshlennaia teplotekhnika, Sverkhtverdye materialy, Tekhnicheskaia elektrodinamika, Teoreticheskaia i eksperimental’naia khimiia, Tsitologiia i genetika, Ukrainskii biokhimicheskii zhurnal, Ukrainskii matematicheskii zhurnal, Upravliaiushchie sistemy i mashiny, and Vestnik zoologii; and the quarterlies Kriobiologiia and Problemy spetsial’noi elektrometallurgii.

Also published in Russian were the State Construction Committee and Union of Architects of Ukraine’s Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura (originally also published in Ukrainian as Arkhitektura i budivnytstvo [1953–7] and Budivnytstvo i arkhitektura [1957–9]); the Ministry of the Coal Industry’s monthly Ugol’ Ukrainy; and the Ministry of Health Protection’s monthlies Vrachebnoe delo and Klinicheskaia khirurgiia, semiquarterly Oftal’mologicheskii zhurnal, and bimonthly Zhurnal ushnykh, nosovykh i gorlovykh boleznei. The only medical journals published in Ukrainian have been the latter ministry’s bimonthlies Pediatriia, akusherstvo i hinekolohiia and Farmatsevtychnyi zhurnal.

Several important Ukrainian journals were not readily available outside the USSR: Ridna pryroda, the State Committee for Environmental Protection’s quarterly; Arkhivy Ukraïny, the Chief Archival Administration’s bimonthly; bibliographic journals published by the Book Chamber of the Ukrainian SSR; Zhurnalist Ukraïny, the monthly of the Union of Journalists of the Ukrainian SSR; and Pam’iatky Ukraïny, the quarterly of the Ukrainian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments.

In 1975 the journals with the 10 largest annual pressruns were Perets’, an illustrated biweekly of humor and satire (68,400,000 copies); Radians’ka zhinka (22,768,700); Ukraïna (Kyiv), the only weekly and a popular illustrated political, cultural, and literary magazine (17,284,800); Barvinok, the Komsomol’s literary monthly for children, published in parallel Ukrainian and Russian editions (16,517,900); Pid praporom leninizmu/Pod znamenem leninizma (11,946,200); Maliatko, the Komsomol’s illustrated monthly for preschoolers (9,432,000); Pioneriia, the Komsomol’s illustrated monthly for children, published in parallel Ukrainian and Russian editions (3,840,200); Komunist Ukraïny/Kommunist Ukrainy (2,451,600); Ranok (Kyiv) (2,040,000); and Liudyna i svit (2,022,300).

Of the 208 non-newspaper periodicals published in Ukraine in 1988, 188 (90 percent) were published in Kyiv, 9 in Kharkiv, 6 in Odesa, 2 in Lviv, and 1 each in Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, and Sumy.

The perestroika period and first years after independence. With the introduction of glasnost and perestroika in 1985, Party control of the press gradually diminished. As a result the ‘blank spots’ in the Soviet past and present—repression, terror, collectivization, destruction of the kulaks, the Holodomor of 1932–3 in Ukraine, the Party purges and Stalinist terror, the physical annihilation of almost an entire generation of Ukrainian intelligentsia, the Second World War, the postwar famine of 1946–7, the suppression of the dissidents in the postwar period, Russification, national and religious oppression, and current social and economic ills—were openly discussed, and opinions and writings that were or would previously have been banned or suppressed were published. Many journalists and editors resigned from the Communist Party of Ukraine, and in October 1990 an independent union of journalists was founded. Hundreds of ‘unofficial’ periodicals—including organs of political groups and parties opposed to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and advocating its abolition, the dissolution of the USSR, and independence for its republics—were founded, particularly after a law guaranteeing freedom of speech, the press, and other mass media and abolishing censorship was introduced in the fall of 1990. The new law did not permit advocating the violent overthrow of the Soviet state, war, racism, national and religious intolerance, hatred, any form of violence, criminal activity, or immorality, or revealing state secrets.

Most of the new alternatives to the communist press in Ukraine were 4- to 12-page monthly papers with pressruns of 1,000 to 10,000 copies. Some were printed in the Baltic republics because of the shortage of paper and the lack of access to printing presses in Ukraine. At least 10 ‘thick’ journals appeared.

The main rival of the CPU, the umbrella organization Popular Movement of Ukraine—or Rukh—published over 50 periodicals after its founding congress in September 1989. Twelve, including Rukh’s central organ Narodna hazeta, Ohliadach, Ekspres novyny, and Svit (formerly Visnyk Rukhu), were published in Kyiv; 22, in other central, southern, and eastern Ukrainian cities, including 3 in Kharkiv (Slobids’ka Ukraïna, Na spolokh, Visti—Vil’na presa); and 15 in western Ukraine, including 4 in Lviv (Viche, Vybory, Iednist’, Zaspiv) and 2 in Ivano-Frankivsk (Halychyna, Poklyk). Pro-Rukh periodicals were also published by Ukrainians living or studying in Moscow (Pora), Riga (Trybuna, Dzherelo), Vilnius (Prolisok), and Tallinn (Struny).

The independentist Ukrainian Republican party (URP, called in 1988–90 the Ukrainian Helsinki Association—the successor to the Ukrainian Helsinki Group) published over 25 periodicals. Foremost among them have been the ‘thick’ journal Ukraïns’kyi visnyk (est 1987, continuing a samvydav journal circulated in 1970–4); its chief organ, Samostiina Ukraïna (formerly Holos vidrodzhennia); and Tsentral’na rada and Na ruïni in Kyiv, Volia in Chernihiv, Lvivs’ki novyny and Respublikanets’ in Lviv, and Ternystyi shliakh in Ternopil. The URP also published 4 other periodicals in Kyiv, 2 others in Chernihiv, and 1 other in Lviv, as well as 2 organs in Ivano-Frankivsk and in Kherson, 1 each in Lutsk, Rivne, Chernivtsi, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Kharkiv, Kherson, Zaporizhia, Dnipropetrovsk, and Cherkasy; and Ukrainskii vopros and Natsional’nyi vopros, in Russian, in Moscow.

Other new political organs were the Lviv Social Democratic Organization’s Reforma and Al’ternatyva in Lviv; Demokratychnyi vybir and, in Russian, Demokraticheskii vybor of the Democratic Platform in the Communist Party of Ukraine; the Ukrainian Democratic party’s Holos in Kyiv; the Ukrainian Christian Democratic party’s Voskresinnia in Ivano-Frankivsk and Za viru i voliu in Ternopil; the Ukrainian National party’s Visnyk in Lviv; the Ukrainian Popular Democratic League’s Nezalezhnist’ in Kyiv; the Lviv Electors’ Club’s Vyborche pravo; the Ukrainian Independence and Statehood party’s Poklyk voli and Samostiinist’ in Lviv; the nonpartisan nationalist Zoloti vorota in Kyiv; the Radical Group’s Za i proty in Lviv; the Social Democratic Federation of Ukraine’s Russian-language papers Sotsial-demokrat Ukrainy and Osvobozhdenie and journal Dialog in Kyiv; the Ukrainian Peasant Democratic party’s Zemlia i volia in Lviv; and the anarcho-syndicalist Nabat in Russian in Kharkiv.

Over 30 new periodicals for young people and students appeared at that time, mostly in Lviv or Kyiv. The URP-affiliated Association of Independent Ukrainian Youth (SNUM) published Molodyi natsionalist in Lviv, Smoloskyp in Chernivtsi, Surma in Stryi, and several other organs. A more integral-nationalist splinter group, SNUM-Nationalists, took over Zamkova hora from SNUM and also published the journal Rada in Kyiv and a few other periodicals. The pro-OUN Association of Ukrainian Youth published organs in Chernivtsi, Kosiv, and Kharkiv.

Other notable alternative periodicals were the Ukrainian Association of Independent Creative Intelligentsia’s literary journals Kafedra and Ievshan zillia in Lviv, Karby hir in Ivano-Frankivsk, Porohy in Dnipropetrovsk, and Snip in Kharkiv; the All-Ukrainian Prosvita Society’s (formerly Ukrainian Language Society) papers Slovo in Kyiv and Prosvita in Lviv; the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox church’s Nasha vira in Kyiv and Svitlo viry in Lutsk; the Ukrainian Ecological Association Zelenyi Svit’s Zelenyi svit in Kyiv; the Lev Society’s Postup and children’s magazine Svit dytyny in Lviv; the Memorial society’s Dzvin in Ternopil and Poklyk sumlinnia in Lviv; the Ternopil Vertep society’s Posvit; the independent papers Vil’ne slovo in Kyiv, Ukraïns’kyi chas in Dnipropetrovsk and Lviv, L’vivs’kyi visnyk, Nova doba, and Zhyttia i pratsia in Lviv, and Al’ternatyva in Pavlohrad; the Ukrainian Independent Press Agency’s Polityka, Perspektyva, and, in Russian, Puti in Kyiv; the Kyiv student Hromada’s Dzvin (1988–9); the Lviv Student Brotherhood’s paper Bratstvo and journal Vikno; the independent (formerly SNUM) nationalist youth paper Moloda Ukraïna in Lviv; and the Kyiv Ukrainian Student Association’s paper Svoboda.

More frequently published alternative newspapers were established in 1990. They included the Lviv Oblast Council’s Za vil’nu Ukraïnu (over 345,000 copies 3 times a week in 1992) and weekly Frankova krynytsia; Lviv oblast’s paper Moloda Halychyna (until 1990 the Komsomol paper Lenins’ka molod’, 232,000 copies 3 times a week in 1992); the Lviv City Council’s evening paper Ratusha (20,000 copies 3 times a week); and the Ukrainian Culture Fund’s weekly Zapovit (50,000 copies) in Ternopil. After 1991 the Supreme Council of Ukraine has published an official organ, Holos Ukraïny, 5 times a week in both Ukrainian and Russian editions (363,000 copies in 1992). In 1992 there were 2,263 registered newspapers (290 republic-level) and 346 registered journals (262 republic-level) in Ukraine.

In 1992 the most widely circulated national newspapers in Ukraine were Sil’s’ki visti (2,268,000 copies 5 times a week); Nezavisimost’ (1,323,000 copies 1 to 4 times a week); Molod’ Ukraïny (713,000 copies 3 times a week); Holos Ukraïny; Robitnycha hazeta/Rabochaia gazeta (300,000 copies 3 times a week); Sportyvna hazeta (243,000 copies 3 times a week); Pravda Ukrainy (220,000 copies 5 times a week); Osvita (164,000 copies once a week); Demokratychna Ukraïna (112,000 copies 3 times a week; and Literaturna Ukraïna (105,000 copies once a week). Influential regional newspapers were Vechirnii Kyïv (546,000 copies 5 times a week); Lviv’s Za vil’nu Ukraïnu (345,000 copies 3 times a week) and Moloda Halychyna (232,000 copies 3 times a week); Ternopil’s Zakhidna Ukraïna (100,000 copies once a week); and Ivano-Frankivsk’s Halychyna (134,000 copies 3 times a week).

Other new notable newspapers included Kyiv’s Khreshchatyk (5 issues per week), Kyïvs’ka pravda (3 issues per week), and weekly Andriivs’kyi uzviz, Dilova Ukraïna/Delovaia Ukraina, Rada, Ukraïna-Business, Finansovyi Kyïv, and Fortune; Lviv’s Vysokyi zamok (3 issues per week), Dilo (semiweekly), and Post-Postup (weekly); Dnipropetrovsk’s biweekly Vil’na dumka; Ternopil’s Vil’ne zhyttia (5 times a week) and semiweekly Ternopil’ vechirnii; Uzhhorod’s Novyny Zakarpattia (3 to 4 issues per week); and Rivne’s weekly Rivne. New journals included the Volhynian cultural quarterly Volyn’ (Lutsk); the bimonthly Kyïvs’ka starovyna; the bibliological bimonthly Knyzhnyk; the Lviv monthlies Literaturno-naukovyi visnyk and Litopys Chervonoï kalyny; the Kyiv monthlies Dilove zhyttia Ukraïny/Delovaia zhizn’ Ukrainy, Bytyi shliakh, Nova heneratsiia, Polityka i chas/Politika i vremia, Trybuna, Tryzub, and Viche/Veche; the children’s monthly Soniashnyk; and the Ternopil bimonthly Ternopil’.

The postwar émigrés and refugees. After the Second World War the approximately 200,000 Ukrainian displaced persons, refugees, and émigrés in the non-Soviet occupation zones of Germany and Austria, as well as soldiers of the Ukrainian National Army (UNA) interned by the British near Rimini, Italy, began publishing their own newspapers, bulletins, and journals. In the years 1945–50 at least 327 noncommunist periodicals reflecting a wide spectrum of partisan opinion and interests appeared, two-thirds of them in the US zone in Bavaria. They included mimeographed bulletins in 19 displaced persons camps; 17 intercamp papers, 5 dealing with resettlement issues; and 18 church, 20 student, 14 literary, 13 organizational, 11 women’s, 11 humorous, 11 satirical, 21 Plast Ukrainian Youth Association, 6 OUN (Bandera faction), 4 OUN (Melnyk faction), 5 Ukrainian Youth Association (SUM), 4 Ukrainian Revolutionary Democratic party (URDP), 3 hetmanite, 3 health, 3 sports, 2 socialist, 25 specialized, and many unclassified periodicals, with a total combined pressrun of 15 million copies. Many of the periodicals were mimeographed. The largest number appeared in the years 1946–8, before the German currency reform and the mass emigration of the majority of the refugees.

In the US zone only the semiweekly and later weekly paper Ukraïns’ki visti (Neu-Ulm, 1945–78), the weekly papers Chas (Fürth) (1945–9), Nashe zhyttia (Augsburg) (1945–8), Nedilia (Germany) (Schweinfurt, Aschaffenburg, and Augsburg, 1945–56), and Na chuzhyni (Vilsbiburg, 1947–8), the semiweekly paper Ukraïns’ka trybuna (Munich, 1946–9), the Plast Ukrainian Youth Association magazines Plastun (Augsburg, 1945–7) and Molode zhyttia (Munich, 1946–50), the literary-cultural journal Orlyk (Berchtesgaden, 1946–8), and the illustrated magazine Pu-hu (Augsburg, 1947–50) received publishing licenses from the military government and free paper from the International Refugee Organization. The hundreds of other periodicals were sublicensed or published as supplements by them, or mimeographed on paper bought on the black market.

Widely read periodicals published in the US zone were, in addition to the aforementioned, the weeklies Slovo (Regensburg) (1945–6), Khrystyians’kyi shliakh (Munich, Karlsfeld, and Mittenwald, 1945–7), and Ukraïns’ka dumka (Augsburg, 1946–8); the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists’ journals Vyzvol’na polityka (Munich, 1946–9), Za samostiinist’ (Munich, 1946–8), Nasha dumka (Munich, 1947–8), and Surma (1949–54) (Munich, 1949); the URDP journal Nashi pozytsiï (Neu-Ulm, 1945–9); the Hetmanite journal Ukraïns’kyi litopys (Augsburg, 1946–8); the military journal Do zbroï (Munich 1946–5); the literary almanacs of MUR (Munich, 1946–7), and the literary-cultural journals Ridne slovo (Munich, 1945–6), Zahrava (Augsburg, 1946), and Arka (Munich, 1947–8); the women’s magazine Hromadianka (Augsburg, 1946–50); the SUM journal Avangard (Munich, 1946–51); the satirical biweeklies Ïzhak (Ellwangen, 1946), Komar-ïzhak (Munich, 1946–9), and Lys Mykyta (Munich, 1947–9); the children’s monthly Mali druzi (Augsburg, 1947–8); the political journal Problemy (Munich 1946–8); and the religious weekly Khrystyians’kyi holos (Munich, est 1949).

Notable periodicals in the more controlled and censored British zone were the mimeographed camp dailies Biuleten’ taboru im. M. Lysenka (Hannover, 1945–7), Radionovyny (Braunschweig, 1945–7), and Ostanni visti (Heidenau, 1947–8); the printed weeklies Luna (Heidenau, 1946), Nasha poshta (Heidenau, 1946–7), Ukraïns’ke slovo (Blomberg, 1948–9), and Ranok (Heidenau) (1948–51); the journal Na chuzhyni (Korigen, 1946–8); and the scholarly-literary magazine Ukraïna i svit (Hannover, 1949–69). In Austria there were the camp daily Taborovi visti (Landeck, 1945–7); the weekly papers Ostanni novyny (Salzburg, 1945–9), Nedil’ni visti (Landeck, 1945–7), Novi dni (Salzburg, 1945–8), and Promin’ (Salzburg) (1946–9); the satirical weekly Proty shersty (Landeck, 1946–7); and the literary-cultural journals Kerma (Salzburg, 1946–7), Zveno (Innsbruck, 1946–7) and Litavry (Salzburg) (1947). At the prisoner of war camp near Rimini, Italy, the daily Zhyttia v tabori (1945–6), the weekly Bat’kivshchyna (1945–7), and five other camp periodicals appeared.

Because of the mass emigration of Ukrainian refugees to other Western countries, by 1951 there were only 7 newspapers and 16 other periodicals in West Germany, and none in Austria. Dozens of Ukrainian newspapers and journals and hundreds of bulletins have been established in the new host countries since the late 1940s, however, primarily in the United States of America and Canada but also in Australia, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Argentina, and Brazil. They have reflected the political, religious, organizational, institutional, and occupational diversity, growth, and decline of the organized Ukrainian communities in those countries.

(See also Agricultural periodicals, Bibliographic journals, Children’s magazines, Co-operative press, Economic press, Humoristic and satiric press, Legal press, Literary journals, Medical journals, Music journals, Pedagogical periodicals, Religious press, Student press, Technical journals, and Women's press. For information on the few Ukrainian-language periodicals published in postwar Eastern Europe, see Poland, Prešov region, Romania, and Yugoslavia.)

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Bohdan Kravtsiv, Roman Senkus

[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 4 (1993).]

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