Ethnography

Ethnography (етнографія; etnohrafiia). Ethnography, like ethnology, is an important branch of cultural and social anthropology. While ethnology is a theoretical science, ethnography is a descriptive science, which studies the general characteristics of various cultures by means of the historical-comparative method. This distinction is tentative, however. Ethnography does not exclude theoretical generalizations, and ethnology cannot avoid description. In its broadest sense ethnography deals with the origin of a people, its relations with other peoples, the historical stages of the formation of ethnic territories, the population’s physical anthropology and racial types, and the people’s settlements, dwellings, economy, dress, familial and social life, folk customs and rites, world outlook, folk beliefs, folklore, and folk art. As a historical science ethnography deals with a people at all of its social levels and stages of historical development.

Sources and studies until the end of the 18th century. The first ethnographic information about Ukraine dates back to the Princely era. It is found in Byzantine and Arab works, the Rus’ chronicles, and literary works of the 11th–13th century, particularly in the church sermons attacking pagan customs and rites. The medieval chronicles have also documented certain spells, proverbs, and fragments of epic songs. The epic Slovo o polku Ihorevi (Tale of Ihor’s Campaign) is imbued with many elements of Ukrainian folk oral literature. A folk song from the mid-16th century about Štefan the Voivode has been preserved in the Czech grammar of J. Blahoslav of 1571. S. Sarnicki mentions the Ukrainian dumas in his account of the war with Wallachia (1506). Examples of Ukrainian funeral lamentations are found in Sebastian Klonowicz’s poem ‘Roxolania’ and in the writings of I. Menecius (1551). Many old transcriptions of folk songs from the 16th–18th century in manuscript collections or old printed books were published by Oleksander Potebnia, Pavlo Zhytetsky, Volodymyr Peretts, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Ivan Franko, Volodymyr Hnatiuk, Mykhailo Vozniak, Petro Rulin, and others.

The travel accounts of foreigners in Ukraine contain much ethnographic material. These sources are discussed in Veniiamyn Kordt’s bibliography Chuzhozemni podorozhi po Skhidnii Evropi do 1700 (Foreign Travels in Eastern Europe until 1700, 1926) and in Volodymyr Sichynsky’s Chuzhyntsi pro Ukraïnu (Foreigners about Ukraine, 1942).

The first works of Ukrainian ethnographers appeared towards the end of the 18th century. In 1777 Hryhorii Kalynovsky published a large work in Saint Petersburg, Opisanie svadebnykh ukrainskikh prostonarodnykh obriadov v Maloi Rossii i v Slobodskoi Ukrainskoi gubernii (Description of Ukrainian Folk Marriage Customs in Little Russia and Slobidska Ukraine Gubernia). Much ethnographic material was published in the journals of the time, particularly in Trudy Vol'nogo ekonomicheskogo obshchestva.

Beginnings of Ukrainian ethnography. The Polish ethnographer and archeologist Zorian Dołęga-Chodakowski can be considered to be the pioneer of Ukrainian ethnography. He collected over 2,000 folk songs and a wealth of other materials. Mykhailo Maksymovych used Dołęga’s collection extensively. Other Poles who collected Ukrainian materials were Tadeusz Czacki and I. Lubicz-Czerwiński (on marriage customs). The travel accounts of the Germans Baltazar Hacquet, J. Rohrer, and S. Bredecki contain materials from Western Ukraine. Among the Russians, Prince Nikolai Tsertelev was an enthusiastic collector of Ukrainian folk songs. In 1819 he published Opyt sobraniia starinnykh malorossiiskikh pesen (An Attempt at a Collection of Ancient Little Russian Songs). A number of important collections of Ukrainian folk songs were published in the 1830s. The first large, systematic collection, Malorossiiskie pesni (Little Russian Songs), was published in 1827 by Maksymovych, who later produced three more collections. Nikolai Gogol collected a large number of Ukrainian folk songs, which appeared in print only on the eve of the First World War. Izmail Sreznevsky, the Kharkiv linguist, published six volumes of Zaporozhskaia starina (1833–8). Platon Lukashevych published Malorossiiskie i chervonorusskie narodnye dumy i pesni (Little Russian and Red Rus’ Folk Dumas and Songs, 1836). The Slavist Osyp Bodiansky made an important contribution with his publication of Nas'ki ukraïns'ki kazky zaporozhtsia Is'ka Matyrynky (Our Own Ukrainian Tales of the Zaporozhian Isko Matyrynka, 1835).

In Galicia ethnographic materials were collected and published by, among others, Markiian Shashkevych (Rusalka Dnistrovaia [The Dnister Nymph], 1837), Yosyp Lozynsky (Ruskoje wesile [Ruthenian Wedding], 1835), Yakiv Holovatsky (Narodnyia pesni Galitskoi i Ugorskoi Rusi [Folk Songs of Galician and Hungarian Ruthenia], 4 vols, 1878), and Ivan Vahylevych.

In this period much work in Ukrainian ethnography was done by Polish scholars: L. Gołębiowski; Wacław Zaleski, who published Pieśni polskie i ruskie ludu galicyjskiego (Polish and Ruthenian Songs of the Galician People, Lviv 1833); and Żegota Pauli, who published Pieśni ludu ruskiego w Galicyi (Songs of the Ruthenian People in Galicia, 2 vols, 1839–40).

In the 1840s and 1850s Mykola Kostomarov and Panteleimon Kulish made important contributions to the analysis of ethnographic materials. In 1843 Kostomarov’s Ob istoricheskom znachenii russkoi narodnoi poezii (On the Historical Significance of Russian Folk Poetry) and in 1847 his Slavianskaia mifologiia (Slavic Mythology) appeared. (Much later he also published ‘Istoricheskoe znachenie iuzhnorusskogo narodnogo pesennogo tvorchestva’ [The Historical Significance of South Russian Folk-Song Creativity], Beseda, 1872, nos 4–6, 8, 10–12.) Kulish’s Zapiski o Iuzhnoi Rusi (Notes on Southern Rus’, 2 vols, 1856–7) has a special place in Ukrainian ethnography. It contains not only the texts of folk songs and tales, but also biographies and descriptions of the singers (kobzars) and storytellers. In 1861–2 the journal Osnova (Saint Petersburg) published the works of Matvii Nomys, Anatolii Svydnytsky, Petro S. Yefymenko, and others. Kulish’s article ‘Pohliad na usnu slovesnist' ukraïns'ku’ (A Look at Ukrainian Folklore), which appeared in the Lviv journal Pravda in 1870, summed up the romantic-populist view of ethnography of the 1840s to 1860s.

In the 1850s and 1860s a number of other valuable works appeared: Amvrosii Metlynsky’s Narodnye iuzhnorusskie pesni (South Russian Folk Songs, 1854), M. Hattsuk’s Uzhynok ridnoho polia (Harvest of Our Native Field, 1857), Mykola Markevych’s Obychai, poveriia, kukhnia i napitki malorossiian (Customs, Beliefs, Cuisine, and Beverages of the Little Russians, 1860), Mykola Zakrevsky’s Starosvetskii bandurista (Old-World Banduryst, 1860–1), and Kalenyk Sheikovsky’s Byt podolian (The Podilians’ Folkways, 1860). The outstanding work of this period was Matvii Nomys’s Ukraïns'ki prykazky, prysliv’ia ta inshe (Ukrainian Proverbs, Sayings, and So On, 1864).

1870–1917. A new period in the history of Ukrainian ethnography began with the founding of the Southwestern Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society in Kyiv in 1873. The scope of ethnographic studies expanded greatly during this period. Researchers advanced from producing individual publications to the codification of ethnographic materials, that is, to the publication of corpuses. As a result of organized expeditions in Right-Bank Ukraine in 1869–70, the society obtained a wealth of new material, and in 1872 it began to publish, under the direction of Pavlo Chubynsky, Trudy Etnografichesko-statisticheskoi ekspeditsii v Zapadno-russkii krai in several large series consisting of 10 volumes each (1872–8). This was the first large-scale attempt at codifying ethnographic materials.

Pavlo Chubynsky’s work was a stimulus to such scholars as Volodymyr Antonovych, Mykhailo Drahomanov, Fedir Vovk, Ivan Rudchenko, Oleksander Potebnia, Oleksander Rusov, Pavlo Zhytetsky, and Mykola Lysenko. The most outstanding representative of this group was M. Drahomanov, who developed the theory of borrowed and migrating themes and motifs in folklore. His numerous works on Ukrainian folklore were published in Rozvidky pro ukraïns'ku narodnu slovesnist' i pys'menstvo (Studies of Ukrainian Folklore and Literature, 4 vols, 1899–1907). Drahomanov also published several collections of Ukrainian folk songs (one in collaboration with V. Antonovych). I. Rudchenko published the valuable collections Narodnye iuzhno-russkie skazki (South Russian Folk Tales, 2 vols, 1869–70) and Chumatskie narodnye pesni (Chumak Folk Songs, 1874), which included a monograph on the chumaks. M. Lysenko collected folk melodies and published them in Zbirnyk ukraïns'kykh narodnykh pisen' (A Collection of Ukrainian Folk Songs, 7 vols, 1868–1911). He also wrote Kharakteristika muzykal'nykh osobennostei malorusskikh dum i pesen ispolniaemykh kobzarem Ostapom Veresaem (A Description of the Musical Traits of the Little Russian Dumas and Songs Sung by the Kobzar Ostap Veresai, 1874). Important works were produced by O. Potebnia: O nekotorykh simvolakh v slavianskoi narodnoi poezii (On Several Symbols in Slavic Folk Poetry, 1860, 1914) and Ob”iasnenie malorusskikh i srodnykh narodnykh pesen (An Exposition of Little Russian and Related Folk Songs, 1883).

Ethnographic research did not come to an end with the closing of the Southwestern Branch of the Russian Imperial Geographic Society and the prohibition of the Ukrainian language by the Ems Ukase in 1876. Many materials were published in Kievskaia starina (1882–1906), Sbornik Khar'kovskogo istoriko-filologicheskogo obshchestva (1886–1914), the Moscow journal Etnograficheskoe obozrenie (from 1889), and Zhivaia starina (1890–1916), the journal of the Ethnographic Section of the Russian Imperial Geographic Society.

Many collections were published separately, particularly beginning in the 1890s. Mykola Sumtsov, who began his research as an adherent of the mythological school but eventually changed to the comparative philological approach, was the author of many ethnographic studies in article form, particularly in Kievskaia starina, and of Sovremennaia malorusskaia etnografiia (Contemporary Little Russian Ethnography, 2 vols, 1893, 1897), Maliunky z zhyttia ukraïns'koho narodnoho slova (Sketches from the Life of Ukrainian Folk Oral Literature, 1910), and Slobozhane. Istorychno-etnohrafichna rozvidka (The Slobidska Ukrainians: A Historical-Ethnographic Study, 1918). Borys Hrinchenko published Etnograficheskie materialy, sobrannye v Chernigovskoi i sosednikh s nei guberniiakh (Ethnographic Materials Collected in the Chernihiv and Neighboring Gubernias, 3 vols, 1895–9), Iz ust naroda. Malorusskie rasskazy, skazki i proch. (From the Mouths of the People: Little Russian Stories, Tales, etc, 1900), and the bibliographic guide Literatura ukrainskogo fol'klora (1770–1900) (The Literature of Ukrainian Folklore, [1777–1900], 1910). His Slovar' ukraïns'koï movy (Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language, 4 vols, 1907–9) contains a wealth of ethnographic material and colloquialisms. Ivan Manzhura, a specialist on folkways, published Skazki, poslovitsy i t.p., zapisannye v Ekaterinoslavskoi i Khar'kovskoi guberniiakh (Tales, Proverbs, etc, Recorded in Katerynoslav and Kharkiv Gubernias, 1890). Mytrofan Dykariv published Narodnyi kalendar Valuis'koho povitu (The Folk Calendar of Valuiky County, 1905), one of the richest surveys of the folk customs and rites connected with the calendric cycle.

At the turn of the 20th century many collections and studies in Ukrainian ethnography appeared, by such scholars as Khryzant Yashchurzhynsky, Mykhailo Komarov, Vladimir Yastrebov, Vasyl Myloradovych, S. Vengrzhynovsky, Volodymyr Okhrymovych, Oleksander Malynka, Petro Ivanov, Vasyl Domanytsky, Vasyl Horlenko, and Pelahiia Lytvynova. Special mention must be made of Dmytro Yavornytsky’s collections of ethnographic materials about the Zaporozhian CossacksPo sledam zaporozhtsev (In the Footsteps of the Zaporozhians, 1898) and Malorusskie narodnye pesni (Little Russian Folk Songs, 1906)—and of Yakiv Novytsky’s work Malorossiiskaia i zaporozhskaia starina v pamiatnikakh ustnogo narodnogo tvorchestva (Little Russian and Zaporozhian Antiquity in the Monuments of Oral Folk Creativity, 1907). In 1891 Aleksandr Pypin’s valuable work Malorusskaia etnografiia (Little Russian Ethnography) appeared as the third volume of his Istoriia russkoi etnografii (The History of Russian Ethnography).

In 1898 the Ethnographic Commission of the Shevchenko Scientific Society was created in Lviv. It collected and edited an enormous wealth of material, which was published in the commission’s two periodicals— Etnohrafichnyi zbirnyk (40 vols) and Materiialy do ukraïns'koï etnolohiï (22 vols, from 1899)—as well as in other publications of the society. The main initiative for this work came from Mykhailo Hrushevsky. Fedir Vovk was an active member of the commission and published a study of wedding customs and funeral rites. His most important ethnographic work, ‘Etnograficheskie osobennosti ukrainskogo naroda’ (The Ethnographic Peculiarities of the Ukrainian People), was part of the second volume of his collection Ukrainskii narod v ego proshlom i nastoiashchem (The Ukrainian People in Its Past and Present, 1916). Another prominent member, Ivan Franko, wrote many ethnographic studies, including Halyts'ko-rus'ki narodni prypovidky (Galician-Ruthenian Folk Proverbs, 1908) and Studiï nad ukraïns'kymy narodnymy pisniamy (Studies of Ukrainian Folk Songs, 1913).

An important role in the commission’s work was played by Volodymyr Hnatiuk. His main work was Etnohrafichni materiialy z Uhors'koï Rusy (Ethnographic Materials from Hungarian Ruthenia, 6 vols, 1897–1911). Hnatiuk edited 22 volumes of Etnohrafichnyi zbirnyk, which contained carols, folk tales, legends, Easter songs, and descriptions of funeral rites. Both older and younger ethnographers were associated with the commission. Filaret Kolessa edited Melodiï haïvok (Easter Spring Melodies, 1909), Melodiï ukraïns'kykh narodnykh dum (Melodies of Ukrainian Folk Dumas, 1910–13), and other works. He also wrote several studies, including Rytmika ukraïns'kykh narodnykh pisen' (The Rhythmics of Ukrainian Folk Songs, 1906–7) and Pro henezu ukraïns'kykh narodnykh dum (On the Genesis of Ukrainian Folk Dumas, 1922). Zenon Kuzelia also contributed works in ethnography.

The Soviet period. With the founding of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kyiv in 1918 ethnographic research became concentrated in four of its sections: the Ethnographic Commission of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, the Cabinet of Anthropology and Ethnology, the Cabinet of Primitive Culture, and the Cabinet of Musical Ethnography. In 1925–32, 10 volumes of the journal Etnohrafichnyi visnyk appeared under the editorship of Andrii Loboda and Viktor Petrov. The Ethnographic Commission published collections dealing with the folklore of the chumaks and boat pilots (lotsmany)—Kazky i opovidannia z Podillia v zapysakh 1850–1860-kh rr. (Tales and Stories from Podilia Recorded in the 1850s–1860s, 1928), edited by Mykola Levchenko, and Zvenyhorodshchyna (The Zvenyhorod Region), with materials collected by S. Tereshchenkova. The commission also produced the monumental Bibliohrafiia literatury z ukraïns'koho folkl'oru (Bibliography of Literature on Ukrainian Folklore, 1930), prepared by Oleksander Yu. Andriievsky.

The Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology, directed by Antin Onyshchuk, concentrated on the material folk culture. The Ethnographic Society was set up as an adjunct to the museum; it published one issue of Zapysky (1925), a bulletin (1927–8), and seven issues of the journal Pobut (1927–30). The Cabinet of Primitive Culture, at the chair of history under Mykhailo Hrushevsky, studied the relics of primitive cultures in Ukraine; from 1926 to 1929 it published 12 issues of Pervisne hromadianstvo ta ioho perezhytky na Ukraïni. The Commission of Historical Songs of the historical-philological section of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences was headed by Kateryna Hrushevska and published her Ukraïns'ki narodni dumy. Korpus (Ukrainian Folk Dumas: The Corpus, 2 vols, 1927, 1931). Among the noted works of this period special mention must be made of the survey of the Ukrainian oral tradition from ancient times, which appeared in volumes 1 and 4 of M. Hrushevsky’s Istoriia ukraïns'koï literatury (History of Ukrainian Literature, 1923, 1925).

In the early 1930s the Stalinist terror and repression of Ukrainian culture brought ethnographic research at the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences almost to a standstill and caused the above ethnographic institutions to close down. Yet, in 1936 the Institute of Ukrainian Folklore, the forerunner of the Institute of Fine Arts, Folklore, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, was founded. In 1937–41 it published the irregular periodical Ukraïns’kyi fol’klor (renamed Narodna tvorchist’ in 1939–41). This institute was subject to Stalinist cultural policies and produced nothing of real scholarly value.

In Lviv a branch of the Institute of Ukrainian Folklore was established in 1939, following the first Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine, and the Ukrainian State Museum of Ethnography and Crafts was created in 1951 using the holdings of the former Museum of Ethnography of the Shevchenko Scientific Society and of other Galician museums. Most ethnographers in Western Ukraine continued to work in their field under the Soviet regime.

From 1944 ethnographic research in Soviet Ukraine was centered in Kyiv at the ethnographic department of the Institute of Fine Arts, Folklore, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1947–58 it published four volumes of Naukovi zapysky. In the 1940s and 1950s the ethnographic department conducted several expeditions in the Donets Basin, Kryvyi Rih region, Transcarpathia, and elsewhere, while the Ukrainian State Museum of Ethnography and Crafts in Lviv sent expeditions into the villages of Lviv oblast in 1949 and into Polisia in 1953. In 1954–63 the museum published eight issues of Materialy z etnohrafiï ta mystetstvoznavstva. In 1956 a valuable volume, Vostochnoslavianskii etnograficheskii sbornik (East Slavic Ethnographic Collection), appeared in Moscow; it dealt with the material culture of the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. In spite of the existence of several institutions and publications, however, the development of Soviet Ukrainian ethnography in the 1940s and 1950s was rather limited in comparison to that of the 1920s and even to that of the period preceding the Revolution of 1917.

Ethnographic research and publication expanded at the end of the 1950s, in the 1960s, and in the first half of the 1970s. In 1957 the Institute of Fine Arts, Folklore, and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR began publishing the journal Narodna tvorchist’ ta etnohrafiia, first as a quarterly, and after 1965 as a bimonthly. General studies on the genres and forms of Ukrainian folklore were published by the institute in the two-volume Ukraïns'ka narodna poetychna tvorchist' (Ukrainian Folk Poetry, 1958). At the beginning of the 1960s the institute began publishing the book series Ukraïns'ka narodna tvorchist' (Ukrainian Folk Creativity). The following works appeared in this series: Istorychni pisni (Historical Songs, 1961), Zahadky (Riddles, 1962), Ihry ta pisni (Games and Songs, 1963), Pisni Iavdokhy Zuïkhy (Songs of Iavdokha Zuikha, 1965), Koliadky ta shchedrivky (Christmas and Epiphany Carols, 1965), Zhartivlyvi pisni rodynno-pobutovi (Humorous Family-Life Songs, 1967), Radians'ki pisni (Soviet Songs, 1967), Kolomyiky (Kolomyikas, 1969), Vesillia (The Wedding, 2 vols, 1970), Tantsiuval'ni pisni (Dance Songs, 1972), Instrumental'na muzyka (Instrumental Music, 1972), Spivanky-khroniky (Song-Chronicles, 1972), Rekruts'ki ta soldats'ki pisni (Recruits’ and Soldiers’ Songs, 1974), Naimyts'ki ta zarobitchans'ki pisni (Servants’ and Laborers’ Songs, 1975), Chumats'ki pisni (Chumak Songs, 1976), Kazky pro tvaryn (Animal Fables, 1976), and Pisni literaturnoho pokhodzhennia (Songs of a Literary Origin, 1978). Other notable publications of the institute were Zakarpats'ki narodni pisni (Transcarpathian Folk Songs, 1962), Bukovyns'ki narodni pisni (Bukovynian Folk Songs, 1963), Ukraïns'ke radians'ke narodne mystetstvo (Ukrainian Soviet Folk Art, 1966) by Borys Butnyk-Siversky, four volumes of Filaret Kolessa’s works (1969–70), and Ukraïns'ki narodni pisni v zapysakh Osypa ta Fedora Bodians'kykh (Ukrainian Folk Songs as Transcribed by Osyp and Fedir Bodiansky, 1978).

Ukrainian scholars have also studied other areas of ethnography and folklore: the folk architecture of peasant houses (Viktor Samoilovych), weaving and embroidery (O. Kulyk, N. Manucharova), folk dress (Olena Kulchytska), folk ceramics (K. Mateiko), metal art objects (Liubov Sukha), folk kilims (A. Zhuk, Yakym Zapasko), folk dances (Andrii Humeniuk, Vasyl Verkhovynets, H. Borymska), Ukrainian folk musical instruments (A. Humeniuk), and folk cuisine and traditional foods (L. Artiukh).

Some works in ethnology from the 1970s were: Yu. Krut, Khliborobs'ka obriadova poeziia slov’ian (Agricultural Ritual Poetry of the Slavs, 1973); N. Zdoroveha, Narysy narodnoï vesil'noï obriadovosty na Ukraïni (Essays on Folk Wedding Rituals in Ukraine, 1974); and O. Dei, Poetyka ukraïns'koï narodnoï pisni (The Poetics of Ukrainian Folk Songs, 1978). The influence of folklore on Ukrainian literature was explored in T. Komarynets, T. Shevchenko i narodna tvorchist' (Taras Shevchenko and Folklore, 1963); B. Khomenko, Narodni dzherela tvorchosty Marka Vovchka (The Folk Sources of Marko Vovchok’s Works, 1977); Oleksa Myshanych, Hryhorii Skovoroda i usna narodna tvorchist’ (Hryhorii Skovoroda and Oral Folklore); and other works. Works dealing with the history of ethnography and folklore include V. Horlenko, Narysy z istoriï ukraïns'koï etnohrafiï ta rosiis'ko-ukraïns'kykh etnohrafichnykh zv’iazkiv (Essays on the History of Ukrainian Ethnography and Russian-Ukrainian Ethnographic Ties, 1964); Z. Vasylenko, Folkl'orystychna diial'nist' M.V. Lysenka (Mykola Lysenko’s Work in Folklore, 1972); O. Dei, Storinky z istoriï ukraïns'koï fol'klorystyky (Pages from the History of Ukrainian Folklore Studies, 1975); and Z. Boltarovych, Ukraïna v doslidzhenniakh pol's'kykh etnohrafiv XIX st. (Ukraine in the Research of Polish Ethnographers of the 19th Century, 1976).

In the 1980s Soviet Ukrainian ethnographers prepared surveys of past studies, university courses in Ukrainian folklore, and histories of ethnography in Ukraine. The bimonthly journal Narodna tvorchist’ ta etnohrafiia published many valuable articles, but also an inordinate number of propagandistic articles of questionable value. Compared to the long period of stagnation under Joseph Stalin, however, ethnographic research in the Soviet Ukraine of the 1960s to 1980s improved considerably.

Outside Ukraine. Vadym Shcherbakivsky was engaged in ethnographic research in Prague from the 1920s to 1941. From 1926 to 1945 the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Berlin had a permanent department of Ukrainian ethnography and regional studies chaired by Zenon Kuzelia. Among the institute’s publications were the ethnographic studies of Viktor Petrov and Panteleimon Kovaliv. In 1946 the Ukrainian Free University published V. Petrov’s work on spells and lamentations. Various periodicals and collections published articles on ethnography and folklore by such scholars as Leonid Biletsky, V. Shcherbakivsky, Petro Odarchenko, Jaroslav Rudnyckyj (on Ukrainian-Canadian folklore), Stepan Kylymnyk, Oleksa Voropai, Yurii Senko, Anna Halyna Horbach, Petro Zvarych, O. Berest, Yevhen Onatsky, John Pauls, Vasyl Lev, Lidiia Burachynska, Damian Horniatkevych, H. Hordiienko, and Ivan Ohiienko. Of the larger works that were published abroad the following deserve to be mentioned: L. Biletsky’s Istoriia ukraïns'koï literatury (Ukraïns'ka narodnia poeziia i ukraïns'ki obriady ta zvychaï) (A History of Ukrainian Literature [Ukrainian Folk Poetry and Ukrainian Rites and Customs], 1947) and I. Ohiienko’s Dokhrystyians'ki viruvannia ukraïns'koho narodu (Pre-Christian Beliefs of the Ukrainian People, Winnipeg 1965).

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Petro Odarchenko

[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1 (1984).]




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