Yevpatoriia [Євпаторія; Jevpatorija]. Map: VIII-14. A city (2013 pop 106,877) and port on the coast of the Black Sea in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. In the 6th and 5th centuries BC the Greek colony of Kerkinitis stood at the site (see Ancient states on the northern Black Sea coast). In the 2nd century BC it was captured by the Scythians. At the end of the 15th century the Turks built a fortified town there. Called Hezlev (Kozlov in Russian), it developed into a trading center and became the target of raids by the Zaporozhian Cossacks (1588, 1675). After Russia's annexation of the Crimea in the late 18th century the town was renamed Yevpatoriia, and a port was constructed. In the 19th century the town exported grain and farm products and manufactured salt. It has been an important resort, transportation, and manufacturing center. Almost 60 percent of its residents are employed in over 100 sanatoriums, rest homes, and recreational resorts in the vicinity. Sunbathing, mud baths (Mainak Lake), and hot saltwater baths are used to treat bone tuberculosis, rheumatism, respiratory ailments, and skin diseases. There are metalworking, food-processing, textile, and furniture plants in the city. A mosque built in 1552 has been preserved.
[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 5 (1993).]