Image - Slovnyk ukrainskoi movy (The Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language; 11 volumes).

Lexicography. The making of dictionaries. Ukrainian lexicography dates back to the 16th century, when the first alfavyty and azbukovnyky (see Azbukovnyk), handwritten glossaries of Hebrew, Greek, and Church Slavonic words in the Holy Scriptures and other religious writings, were prepared. These were followed by the first printed lexicons, compiled by Lavrentii Zyzanii (1596; repr 1964) and Pamva Berynda (1627, 1653; repr 1961) reversed as a Church Slavonic (Ukrainian)-Polish Suprasl Lexicon of 1722, repr 1751, 1756, and 1804 in Pochaiv. A. Calepino’s 1590 Latin-multilingual dictionary served as the basis for a ‘Heptaglot’ including Ukrainian translation of approximately 2,500 Latin words that was prepared somewhere in the Ottoman Empire in the early 17th century (manuscript preserved at the Bodleian Library, Oxford). With the introduction of Latin courses at the Kyivan Mohyla Academy, Yepifanii Slavynetsky prepared a Latin-Slavonic (Ukrainian) lexicon (1642; repr 1973) based on the Polish part of A. Calepino’s and G. Knapski’s 1621 Polish-Latin dictionary. He revised this with Arsenii Koretsky-Satanovsky’s help ca 1650 in Moscow (repr Rome 1968, Kyiv 1968, 1973). Later Slavynetsky prepared a Greek-Slavonic-Latin lexicon (before 1675; manuscript preserved at the Moscow Patriarchal Library), which served as the basis for F. Polikarpov-Orlov’s printed lexicon (1704). A reverse dictionary of Berynda’s, Synonima slavenorosskaia (Slavonic-Ruthenian Synonyms), was compiled anonymously in the middle of the 17th century (repr 1889, 1964).

In the early 1700s an anonymous ‘Dictionarium Latino-Rutenicum’ of approximately 20,000 words in the Ukrainian redaction of Church Slavonic was prepared (manuscript preserved at the Franciscan monastery in Dubrovnik). In 1722–6 Ivan Maksymovych prepared an unpublished Latin-Slavonic dictionary based on G. Knapski’s 1626 Latin-Polish dictionary (facsimile edn Rome, 1991).

Ukraine under Russian rule. In the Russian Empire, the earliest lexicographic works containing vernacular Ukrainian words appeared in Saint Petersburg. The comparative dictionary edited by Peter Pallas (2 vols, 1787, 1789) included a glossary of 285 Ukrainian words compiled by H. Bacmeister. Other Ukrainian-Russian dictionaries were prepared in the 1830s; the only extant manuscripts are 19 notebooks containing 4,500 words (ca 1835), which have been ascribed to Amvrosii Metlynsky, and Pavlo Biletsky-Nosenko’s pioneering dictionary of over 20,000 Ukrainian word nests (1838–43), which was published only in 1966.

The first Ukrainian-Russian dictionaries to be published separately were by Oleksander Afanasiev-Chuzhbynsky (6,000 words from A to Z, in Izvestiia Otdela russkago iazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoi akademii nauk, 1855, parts 1–2, 4), Kalenyk Sheikovsky (A–B, 1862; T–Ya, 1883, 1886), Mykola Zakrevsky (11,127 words, 1861), Fortunat Piskunov (ca 8,000 words, 1873, 1882), and Viktor Dubrovsky (1911, 1917, 1918). The first separately printed Russian-Ukrainian dictionary was by Mykhailo Levchenko (7,600 words, 1874). After the imposition of the Ems Ukase (1876), two decades passed before the next two Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries—by Mykhailo Komarov et al (37,000 words, 4 vols, 1893, 1894, 1896, 1898, published under the pseuds M. Umanets and A. Spilka in Austrian-ruled Lviv, repr 1924, Berlin; aka ‘Russian-Galician dictionary,’ published under the pseud A. Hurt in Vienna 1896–8) and by Yevhen Tymchenko (40,000 words, 2 vols, Kyiv 1897, 1899)—were published. The most important Ukrainian vernacular–Russian dictionary was initiated by Panteleimon Kulish in 1861, compiled and edited successively by Pavlo Zhytetsky, Volodymyr Naumenko, and Yevhen Tymchenko, and completed by Borys Hrinchenko (68,000 words, 4 vols, 1907–9; repr, Berlin 1924, Kyiv 1925, 1958–60). It played a decisive role in the later standardization of literary Ukrainian.

A few specialized dictionaries dealing with vernacular botanical, agricultural, and technical terms were published (see Terminology). Ukrainian vernacular terms were also included in Nikolai Annenkov’s Russian botanical dictionary (1859, 2nd edn 1878), the Imperial Academy’s Russian dictionary edited by Ya. Grot and Aleksei Shakhmatov (1891–1916), and Izmail Sreznevsky’s dictionary of Old East Slavic (4 vols, 1893, 1895, 1903; 1912; repr 1958, Moscow).

The only lexicons published in the Russian Empire with explanations in Ukrainian were a dictionary of 1,500 foreign terms and little-understood words (1906; repr after 1914 in Winnipeg) by Vasyl Domanytsky and a dictionary of Taras Shevchenko’s vocabulary (7,000 words, 1916) by Nestor Litopysets (pseud of Nestor Malecha).

Western Ukraine under Austrian rule. In Galicia, Yosyp Levytsky’s Slavonic-Polish dictionary (1830, based on the Suprasl Lexicon, 1722) contained Ukrainian vernacular words. Ukrainian lexicography did not truly develop in Galicia and Bukovyna, however, until the latter half of the 19th century. Nearly a century of Austrian rule passed before the first German-Ukrainian dictionary, compiled by Omelian Partytsky (35,000 words, 1867), was published. One by Volodymyr Kmitsykevych (34,000 words, 1912) appeared almost a half-century later. The first Ukrainian-German dictionary (over 64,000 words) was compiled by Yevhen Zhelekhivsky and Sofron Nedilsky (2 vols, 1884, 1886; repr 3 vols, 1982). It served as the foundation for the Ukrainian-German dictionary by Omelian Popovych (1904; repr [ca 25,000 words] 1911). Ilarii Ohonovsky’s Greek-Ukrainian dictionary of 13,000 words and names in Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad (1900), Yuliian Kobyliansky’s Ukrainian-Latin (1907) and Latin-Ukrainian (17,000 words and phrases, 1912) dictionaries, and Y. Tanchakovsky’s small Ukrainian-Polish dictionary (1910) were used in Galicia’s Ukrainian schools.

Several specialized dictionaries of legal, political, administrative, botanical, mathematical, physical, chemical, and economic terms were compiled (see Terminology).

In Transcarpathia, where the official language was Hungarian, Ruthenian-Hungarian dictionaries were published by Oleksander Mytrak (ca 70,000 words, 1881) and László Csopey (ca 20,000 words, 1883). The Ruthenian part was a combination of the Transcarpathian dialects and yazychiie.

Independent Ukraine, 1917–19. After the February Revolution of 1917, Ukrainian became the major language of communication. The acute shortage of dictionaries was remedied to some extent by the publication of a dictionary of grammatical terminology and orthography approved by the Society of School Education (1917); an orthographic dictionary by Hryhorii Holoskevych (3 edns, 1918); over 20 Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries by authors such as V. Buriachenko (1917), S. Ivanytsky and F. Shumliansky (2 vols, 1918), M. Kamenetsky (1918), Oleksander Konysky (3 edns, 1918), M. Kolomyichenko (1918), D. Lebid (1918), the Chas publishing house (1918), B. Stepanenko (2 edns, 1918), P. Terpylo (3 edns, 1918), A. Tomylenko and M. Antonovych (1918), P. Shestopal (1918), and V. Hrebinkovsky (1919); Ukrainian-Russian dictionaries by F. Bezkrovny and S. Pereiaslavets (1917), Viktor Dubrovsky (edns 3–6, 1917–18), and two anonymous authors (1917, 1918); a dictionary of foreign terms by Z. Pyptenko (1918); a dictionary of Ukrainian physical terminology by the Ukrainian Scientific Society (1918); a Russian-Ukrainian legal dictionary by Volodymyr M. Leontovych and O. Yefymov (2 edns, 1917, 1919); a dictionary of physics terms by Olena Kurylo and Hryhorii Kholodny (1918); and 20 small (8–60-page) terminological dictionaries (10 of them Russian-Ukrainian ones) in the fields of medicine, geography, science, mathematics, law, and administration.

Western Ukraine, 1918–41. Ukrainian lexicographic works published in Galicia in this period included a German-Ukrainian dictionary by M.N. (1918); a Ukrainian-Polish dictionary by Ilarion Svientsitsky (1920); a nomenclature of higher plants by Mykola Melnyk (1922); a Ukrainian stylistic dictionary by Ivan Ohiienko (1924); an orthographic dictionary by Kost Kysilevsky (1927, 1934); a Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian dictionary by Yevhen Hrytsak and K. Kysilevsky (1931); a Ukrainian-German dictionary by Volodymyr Kalynovych (5,000 words, 1931); a musical dictionary by Zinovii Lysko (1933); I. Ohiienko’s dictionary of words not used in the literary Ukrainian language (1934); a botanical dictionary by S. Makowiecki, of 3,500 Latin names and 21,253 Ukrainian equivalents transliterated using the Polish alphabet (1936); a pocket dictionary of foreign terms by R. Borys and S. Skorbut (1937); a dictionary of foreign terms by Mykhailo Matchak (1938); an orthographic dictionary by Oleksander Paneiko (1941); and a German-Ukrainian dictionary by Yakym Yarema (1941).

In Czechoslovakian-ruled Transcarpathia, Hungarian-Ruthenian (Transcarpathian dialect) dictionaries by N. Beskyd (1919), Oleksander Mytrak (1922), and E. Bokshai, Yuliian Revai, and Mykhailo Brashchaiko (1928) and a Hungarian-Ruthenian dictionary of legal terms by E. Toronsky (1925–7) were published.

Soviet Ukraine, 1920–32. In the first decade of Soviet rule, lexicographers, most of them in Kyiv, concentrated on the preparation of practical Ukrainian-Russian and Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries and the development of a standard orthography and scientific terminology. New Ukrainian-Russian dictionaries by Dmytro Yavornytsky (A–K, 5,000 words, 1920), L. Savchenko (1923; 2nd edn 1924; 3rd and 4th edns 1925; 5th edn 1926), Andrii Nikovsky (1927), V. Mankivsky and M. Shcherbak (1929; 2nd edn 1930), and Ovsii Iziumov (1930) were published. The seminal Ukrainian-Russian dictionary edited by Borys Hrinchenko was republished in 1925, and Serhii Yefremov, A. Nikovsky, and others began working on a revised third edition incorporating examples from contemporary literary sources (the first edition had been based on literature written before 1870); only vols. 1–3 (A–N, 1927–8) were published.

New Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries by the State Publishing House of Ukraine (5 edns, 1923–5), L. Savchenko (1925), Ovsii Iziumov (1926; 2nd and 3rd edns 1927), Maik Yohansen, Mykola Nakonechny, Kostiantyn Nimchynov, and Borys Tkachenko (1926), and Hryhorii Sabaldyr (1926) appeared, and the Russian-Ukrainian dictionary edited by Mykhailo Komarov et al was reprinted (1925). The All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Commission for the Compilation of a Dictionary of Contemporary Ukrainian published a 2,000-page Russian-Ukrainian dictionary (letters A–P) edited by Serhii Yefremov, Vsevolod Hantsov, Hryhorii Holoskevych, Mariia Hrinchenko, Ahatanhel Krymsky, and Andrii Nikovsky (vol 1, 1924; vol 2 [3 parts]: 1929, 1932–3; vol 3, parts 1–2, 1927–8); it is one of the finest achievements of Ukrainian lexicography.

Also appearing were orthographic dictionaries by Hryhorii Holoskevych (4th–7th edns 1922, 1924, 1926, 1930), Ovsii Iziumov (60,000 words, 1931; revised by Oleksander Paneiko, 1941), Hryhorii Sabaldyr and O. Kolomatska (25,000 words, 1930), and other authors; dictionaries of foreign terms by the Chas publishing house (1924) and O. Badan-Yavorenko (1932); a dictionary of Ukrainian administrative phraseology (1926, 1927) by Valeriian Pidmohylny and Yevhen Pluzhnyk; a German-Ukrainian dictionary by Ivan Sharovolsky (20,000 words, 1929, rev edn 1948); a Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of proverbs by H. Mlodzynsky (1929); part of a historical dictionary of the Ukrainian language that Yevhen Tymchenko (ed) and others had compiled at the turn of the 20th century (A–Zh, 1930, 1932; repr Munich 1985); and a dictionary of foreign terms by I. Boikiv, O. Iziumov, H. Kalyshevsky, and M. Trokhymenko (1932; repr New York 1955).

Terminological research and compilation was co-ordinated initially in Kyiv by a terminological commission (est 1918) at the Ukrainian Scientific Society and the VUAN Orthographic and Terminological Commission (est 1919). In 1921 these commissions were amalgamated to form the VUAN Institute of the Ukrainian Scientific Language (IUNM). Before it was disbanded in 1930, the IUNM published 20 Ukrainian-Russian dictionaries in the mathematical, technical, natural, and social sciences. In 1931–3 the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR continued the work of the IUNM. About 70 terminological dictionaries came out in Ukraine by 1933.

Soviet Ukraine after 1933. During the Stalinist terror most Ukrainian lexicographers were repressed as ‘bourgeois nationalist saboteurs,’ and their works were blacklisted (see Language policy). Thenceforth a Russified scientific orthography and terminology, expunged of all words deemed archaic, dialectal, or ‘contrived’ (ie, introduced in the 1920s), was imposed and published in 5 VUAN terminological bulletins (medicine, mathematics, botany, physics, manufacturing, ed P. Mustiatsa, 1934–5), 10 Russian-Ukrainian terminological dictionaries for secondary schools (1933–5), 2 Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries (S. Vasylevsky et al, 1937; ed Mykhailo Kalynovych, Leonid Bulakhovsky, and Maksym Rylsky, 80,000 words, 1948; rev edns 1955–6, 1961–2), an orthographic dictionary (D. Levi, Hryhorii Levchenko, and Liudmyla Rak, 1936), a dictionary of medical terms (Illia Kyrychenko et al, 1936), a Latin-Ukrainian-Russian medical dictionary (M. Knipovych, 1948), and other Russian-Ukrainian and orthographic dictionaries.

Russified orthography, vocabulary, and terminology remained normative in the many Soviet Ukrainian dictionaries published since Joseph Stalin’s death. Nonetheless, the post-Stalin era was the most productive period in Ukrainian lexicography in terms of the number and variety of dictionaries published. Many orthographic dictionaries and handbooks appeared (Illia Kyrychenko, 40,000 words, 1955, rev edn 1960; Mykola Pohribny, 50,000–52,000 words, 1959, rev edn 1964; I. Vykhovanets et al, 50,000 words, 1973; A. Buriachok, Leonid Palamarchuk, Vitalii Rusanivsky, and Nina Totska, 1973; Serhii Holovashchuk et al, 114,000 words, 1975, 1977; S. Holovashchuk, 40,000 words, 1979, 1989). The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (now National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) sponsored the preparation and publication of several major multivolume dictionaries: the largest Ukrainian-Russian and Russian-Ukrainian dictionaries (ed I. Kyrychenko et al, 6 vols, 121,700 words, 1953, 1958, 1961–3; ed Ivan Bilodid et al, 3 vols, 1968, rev edn 1980–1), the largest dictionary of the Ukrainian language (ed I. Bilodid et al, 11 vols, 1970–80), the first dictionary of 14th- to 15th-century Middle Ukrainian (ed Lukiia Humetska et al, 2 vols, 1977–8), and the Ukrainian etymological dictionary in seven projected volumes (ed Oleksander Melnychuk et al; vol 1: A–H, 1982; vol 2, D–Koptsi, 1985; vol 3, Kora–M, 1989). These served as the foundation of a Russian-Ukrainian dictionary for secondary schools (D. Hanych and I. Oliinyk, 1962, 5th edn 1979), the AN URSR Ukrainian-Russian dictionary (ed Vasyl Ilin, 65,000 words, 1964, 4th edn 1976), and a one-volume school dictionary of the Ukrainian language (ed D. Hrynchyshyn, L. Humetska, et al, 1978).

Over 15 other bilingual dictionaries appeared: four English-Ukrainian (Mykhailo Podvezko, 50,000 words, 1948, 1951; M. Podvezko, 25,000 words, 1955, 1965; M. Podvezko and M. Balla, 65,000 words, 1974, repr Edmonton 1988; Yurii Zhluktenko, N. Bykhovets, and A. Shvants, 20,000 words, 1978, 1982, 1984), a Ukrainian-English (M. Podvezko, 60,000 words, 1952; rev edn 1957, 1962, 1965), four German-Ukrainian (ed Ivan Sharovolsky, 2nd edn, 25,000 words, 1955; V. Leshchynska, O. Mazny, and K. Silvestrova, 50,000 words, 1959; V. Bukhbinder, 1972, 2,500 words; ed E. Lysenko, 20,000 words, 1978, 1983), a (the first) French-Ukrainian (O. Andriievska and L. Yavorovska, 50,000 words, 1955), a Polish-Ukrainian (ed Lukiia Humetska et al, 2 vols [3 books], 1958–60), (the first) two Ukrainian-French (O. Andriievska and L. Yavorovska, 50,000 words, 1963; M. Lysenko and Y. Donets, 1985; K. Andrashko, O. Kolomyiets, and K. Tyshchenko, 20,000 words, 1986), (the first) Bulgarian-Ukrainian (I. Stoianov and O. Chmyr, 43,000 words, 1988), and a major Czech-Ukrainian (AN URSR, 2 vols, 1988–9) dictionary. The only two English-Ukrainian phraseological dictionaries (K. Barantsev, 7,000 phrases, 1956; 30,000 phrases, 1969), a dictionary of 2,500 synonyms in the English language (K. Barantsev, 1964), and a Russian-Ukrainian-Hungarian phraseological dictionary (V. Laver and I. Zikan, 1985) also appeared.

In 1957 a Dictionary Commission headed by Yosyp Shtokalo was founded at the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. It co-ordinated the compilation of over 20 Russian-Ukrainian specialized terminological dictionaries.

In the 1950s and 1960s many other specialized dictionaries appeared: a Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of geographic names (A. Kara-Mosko and M. Tokarsky, 1953), a dictionary of linguistic terms (Yevhen Krotevych and N. Rodzevych, 1957); two dictionaries of Ukrainian synonyms (A. Bahmet, Vitchyzna, 1959, no. 2–1961, no. 12; P. Derkach, ed and rev Serhii Levchenko, 1960), dictionaries of terms in literary scholarship (Vasyl Lesyn and O. Pulynets, 1961; rev edns 1965, 1971), a Ukrainian-Russian and Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of personal names (ed Illia Kyrychenko, 1954; ed S. Levchenko, 1961, 1967; L. Skrypnyk, 1972, 1976, 1986), a brief geological dictionary (V. Vyshniakov, 1962), a Ukrainian-Russian dictionary of geographic names in the Ukrainian SSR (V. Nezhnypapa, 1964; rev edn 1971), a dictionary of Taras Shevchenko’s language (ed Vasyl S. Vashchenko et al, 2 vols, 1964), a short dictionary of musical terms (Serhii Pavliuchenko, 1965), a Ukrainian phraseological dictionary (N. Batiuk, 1966), a political dictionary (1966; 3rd edn 1982); a dictionary of over 2,200 Ukrainian idioms (H. Udovychenko, 1968), a handbook of Ukrainian surnames (Yu. Redko, 1969), and a brief Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of printing and publishing terms (V. Bova and M. Dolomino, 1969).

Even more specialized dictionaries were published in the 1970s and 1980s: a Ukrainian-Russian and Russian-Ukrainian phraseological dictionary (I. Oliinyk and M. Sydorenko, 1971; rev edn 1978), a dictionary of musical terms (Yu. Yutsevych, 1971; rev edn 1977), a dictionary for fans of cinema (M. Panfilov, 1971), a numismatic dictionary (V. Zvarych, 1972), a toponymic dictionary of the Ukrainian SSR (M. Yanko, 1973), an economic dictionary (ed Petro Bahrii and S. Dorohuntsov, 1973), a dictionary of foreign words (ed Oleksander Melnychuk, 1974; 2nd rev edn 1985), a juridical dictionary (eds Borys Babii, Volodymyr Koretsky, and Viktor Tsvetkov, 1974), an economic-agricultural dictionary (O. Krysalny, 1975), a dictionary of Taras Shevchenko studies (2 vols, Yevhen Kyryliuk et al, 1976–7), a dictionary of the language in Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnovianenko’s works (3 vols, 1978), a dictionary of Ukrainian rhymes (A. Buriachok and Ivan Huryn, 1979), a dictionary of Ukraine’s hydronyms (ed A. Nepokupny, O. Stryzhak, and Kyrylo Tsiluiko, 1979), a dictionary of associative norms in the Ukrainian language (N. Butenko, 1979), a scientific dictionary (I. Bilenko, 1979), a frequency dictionary of words in Soviet Ukrainian prose from 1945 to 1970 (ed V. Perebyinis, 2 vols, 1981), a dictionary reference book of morphemic analysis (I. Yatsenko, 2 vols, 1981), a morphemic dictionary (L. Poliuha, 1983), a major Ukrainian phraseological dictionary (H. Udovychenko, 2 vols, 1984), a Ukrainian morphological dictionary of medical terminology (O. Fedotov, O. Ochkurenko, and K. Fenchyn, 1985), a dictionary of classical mythology (ed Andrii Biletsky, 1985), a new dictionary of linguistic terms (D. Hanych and I. Oliinyk, 1985), a brief dictionary of Ukrainian periphrases (M. Kolomiiets and Ye. Rehushevsky, 1985), a Ukrainian reverse dictionary (ed Stepan Bevzenko, 1985), a dictionary of Ukrainian paronyms (D. Hrynchyshyn and O. Serbenska, 1986), a biological dictionary (ed Kostiantyn Sytnyk and Vadym Topachevsky, 2nd rev edn, 1986), a philosophical dictionary (Volodymyr Shynkaruk, 2nd rev edn, 1986), a dictionary of over 2,000 pairs of Ukrainian antonyms (L. Poliuha, 1987), an encyclopedic dictionary (A. Kudrytsky et al, 3 vols, 1986–7), a dictionary of over 21,000 Ukrainian abbreviations and acronyms (ed M. Feshchenko and V. Zhaivoronok, 1988), and a dictionary of Ukrainian phraseological synonyms (M. Kolomiiets and Ye. Rehushevsky, 1989), and a dictionary of difficult language usage in Ukrainian (S. Yermolenko, 1989).

After the 1950s dialectal dictionaries of Odesa oblast (Oleksander Melnychuk, Leksykohrafichnyi biuleten’ [LB], 2 [1952]), Sumy oblast (I. Pryimak, 1957; Artem Moskalenko, Odesa 1958), Transcarpathia (Yosyp Dzendzelivsky, 1958; H. Hrytsak, typescript, 1962), the lower Dnister River region (Y. Dzendzelivsky, LB, 6 [1958]; A. Berlizov, 1959), right-bank Cherkasy oblast (P. Lysenko, LB, 6 [1958]), Zhytomyr oblast (Leonid Palamarchuk, LB, 6 [1958]), the Poltava region (Vasyl S. Vashchenko, 1960), Polisia (P. Lysenko, 1961, 1974; M. Nykonchuk, 1979), Bukovyna (V. Prokopenko, in Karpatskaia dialektologiia i onomastika, ed G. Klepikov, Moscow 1972), the Boiko region (Mykhailo Onyshkevych, 2 vols, 1984), and western Volhynia (M. Korzoniuk, in Ukraïns’ka dialektna leksyka, ed I. Matviias et al, 1987) were published.

Interwar Eastern and Central Europe. Ukrainian émigrés, most of them affiliated with the Ukrainian Free University and Ukrainian Husbandry Academy in Czechoslovakia and the Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Berlin and Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Warsaw, also compiled dictionaries. They published a dictionary of foreign terms (Zenon Kuzelia, Leipzig 1919), the first two Czech-Ukrainian dictionaries (N. Kovalevska-Koroleva, 1920; N. Shcherbyna, 1924), some terminological dictionaries, two German-Ukrainian dictionaries (Hanna Nakonechna, 1939, 1941; the Ukrainske Vydavnytstvo (Cracow) publishing house, 1941), two Ukrainian-German dictionaries (Jaroslav Rudnyckyj, over 20,000 words, 1940, 1941; Z. Kuzelia and J. Rudnyckyj, 98,000 words, 1943, repr Wiesbaden 1983), and a Ukrainian-Italian dictionary (Yevhen Onatsky, 1941). The Ukrainian-Russian dictionary edited by Borys Hrinchenko was reprinted in Berlin in 1924. Also of note were the German-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-German dictionary of military terminology (I. Ilnytskyj-Zankovych, 1938), German-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-German dictionary of aviation terminology (I. Ilnytskyj-Zankovych, 1939).

The New World. The earliest dictionaries published outside Ukraine appeared in Canada: M. Yasenitsky’s Pocket Dictionary of the Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian Languages (1914) and E. Kozlovsky’s English-Ukrainian Pocket Dictionary (1917, 1923). Since that time other dictionaries have appeared in Canada, most of them after the Second World War: H. Platsko’s (1929) and James Krett’s (1931) Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian dictionaries, Frank Dojacek’s New English Interpreter and Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian Dictionary (1930), Constantine Andrusyshen and J. Krett’s Ukrainian-English Dictionary (1957; repr 1981, 1985), Ivan Ohiienko’s Grammatical and Stylistic Lexicon of Shevchenko’s Poetry (1961), Wasyl Niniowskyi’s Ukrainian reverse dictionary (1969), Jaroslav Rudnyckyj’s Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language (2 vols, 1962–75, 1978–82), F. Bohdan’s Dictionary of Ukrainian Surnames in Canada (1974), Pavlo Shtepa’s dictionary of foreign terms (1977), Ivan Ohiienko’s etymological-semantic dictionary (3 vols, A–O, 1979, 1982, 1988), P. Shtepa’s phraseological dictionary (1980), and W. Niniowskyi’s Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian Dictionary (24,000 words, 1985). Mykhailo Podvezko’s English-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-English dictionaries (1958) and I. Ohiienko’s 1924 Ukrainian stylistic dictionary (1978) have been reprinted.

In the United States the first Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian dictionary was Myron Surmach’s pocket dictionary (1931). Several Ukrainian dictionaries have been published since the Second World War: an English-Ukrainian nautical dictionary (W. Stepankowsky, 1953), an English-Ukrainian dictionary (J. Salastin, 1956), a Ukrainian dictionary of foreign terms (Artem Orel, 3 vols, 1963–6), an anatomical dictionary (F. Tseshkivsky and Oleksander Cherniakhivsky, 1971), two orthographic dictionaries (Panteleimon Kovaliv, 1977; ed Jaroslav Rudnyckyj and Konstantyn Tserkevych, 1979), an English-Ukrainian scientific and technical dictionary (Anatole Wowk, 1982), and an English-Ukrainian dictionary of color names (A. Wowk, ed Bohdan Struminsky, 1986). Several dictionaries have been reprinted: Hryhorii Holoskevych’s orthographic dictionary (8th edn 1952, 1962); I. Boikiv, Ovsii Iziumov, H. Kalyshevsky, and M. Trokhymenko’s 1932 dictionary of foreign terms (1955); Mykhailo Podvezko’s Ukrainian-English Dictionary (1954, 1963, 1973); Martyrii Halyn’s 1926 Latin-Ukrainian medical dictionary (1969); Ivan Ohiienko’s 1934 dictionary of words not used in literary Ukrainian (1973); P. Derkach’s 1960 dictionary of Ukrainian synonyms (rev edn, ed V. Volkov, Nataliia Pazuniak, K. Tserkevych, 1975); A. Bahmet’s 1959–61 dictionary of Ukrainian synonyms (A–P, ed Hryhorii Luzhnytsky and Leo Rudnytzky, 1982); the Russian-Ukrainian dictionary of legal terms (ed Ahatanhel Krymsky, 1984); M. Knipovych’s 1948 Latin-Ukrainian-Russian medical dictionary (1985); and P. Oesterle’s 1944 German-Ukrainian medical dictionary (1986).

In Argentina, a Ukrainian-Spanish and Spanish-Ukrainian dictionary by T. Petrivsky was published in Buenos Aires as early as 1930. In Australia, a few dictionaries by postwar Ukrainian immigrants have appeared: an orthographic dictionary (Dmytro Nytchenko, 1968, 1985), a Ukrainian-English Dictionary for Popular Use (M., W., and A. Dejko, 50,000 words, 1979), and an English-Ukrainian Dictionary for Popular Use (M., W., and A. Dejko, 50,000 words, 1979).

Postwar Western Europe. A few dictionaries by and for displaced persons were published in Germany immediately after the Second World War: V. Zakharkiv’s (1945–6) and Vasyl Lev and I. Verbiany’s (1947) Ukrainian-English and English-Ukrainian dictionaries and Artem Orel’s orthographic dictionary (1946). Since that time the dictionaries published in Germany have been Oleksa Horbach’s dialectal dictionaries of the northern Dnister River region (Naukovi zapysky UTHI [NZUTHI], vol 7 [1965]), northern Dobrudja (NZUTHI, vol 15 [1968]; Zapysky NTSh, vol 185 [1969]), Terebovlia county (NZUTHI, vols 19–20 [1969–70]), western Polisia (NZUTHI, vol 25 [1973]), the Prešov region (1973), and southern Volhynia (1973); M. Savchuk’s German-Ukrainian electrotechnical dictionary (UTHI, 1981); and V. Irkliievsky’s etymological dictionary of Ukrainian surnames (1987). In Rome, a small Church Slavonic–Ukrainian–English dictionary (D. Popovych and K. Pasichny, 1962) and Yevhen Onatsky’s Ukrainian-Italian (2nd enlarged edn 1977) and Italian-Ukrainian (1977) dictionaries have been published.

Postwar Eastern Europe. In Poland, a Ukrainian-Polish dictionary (30,000 words, ed Stefan Hrabec and Przemysław Zwoliński, 1957) was published. In Czechoslovakia, the indigenous Ukrainians published a Ukrainian-Slovak dictionary (I. Popel, ed M. Buchynska, 1960), a Ukrainian vernacular–Russian dictionary compiled by Yakiv Holovatsky in 19th-century Galicia and Transcarpathia (Naukovyi zbirnyk Muzeiu ukraïns’koï kul’tury u Svydnyku, vol 10 [1982]), and the first Slovak-Ukrainian dictionary (P. Bunhanych, 40,000 words, 1985). A Hungarian-Ukrainian dictionary (L. Vladimir, K. Halas, V. Dobosh, et al, 1961) and a Ukrainian-Hungarian dictionary (L. Katona, 1963) were published by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In Bucharest, a Romanian-Ukrainian (30,000 words, 1963) and a Ukrainian-Romanian (35,000 words, 1964) dictionary were compiled by native and Soviet lexicographers and edited by G. Cocotailo. In Yugoslavia, the indigenous Ukrainians prepared a Serbo-Croatian–‘Rusinian’ (Bačka dialect) and ‘Rusinian’–Serbo-Croatian elementary-school dictionary (M. Kochysh, 1970), a Serbo-Croatian–‘Rusinian’–Ukrainian school dictionary (M. Kochysh, 1972), and the first Ukrainian–Serbo-Croatian and Serbo-Croatian–Ukrainian dictionary (A. Menac and Alla Koval [a Soviet lexicographer], 1979).

Moskalenko, A. Narys istoriï ukraïns’koï leksykohrafiï (Kyiv 1961)
Horets’kyi, P. Istoriia ukraïns’koï leksykohrafiï (Kyiv 1963)
Palamarchuk, L. Ukraïns’ka radians’ka leksykohrafiia (Pytannia istoriï, teoriï ta praktyky) (Kyiv 1978)
Nimchuk, V. Staroukraïns’ka leksykohrafiia v ïï zv'iazkakh z rosiis’koiu ta bilorus’koiu (Kyiv 1980)

Oleksa Horbach, Roman Senkus

[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 5 (1993).]

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