IEU'S FEATURED TOPICS IN UKRAINIAN CULTURE AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY




I. The History and Cultural Legacy of the Kyivan Caves Monastery
II. The Historical Evolution of Ukrainian Law and Legal Tradition
III. Ukrainian Wandering Bards: Kobzars, Bandurysts, and Lirnyks
IV. Ostrih Academy: Eastern Europe's First Institution of Higher Learning
V. Brotherhoods: The Promoters of Education and Culture in Early Modern Ukraine
VI. The Origins and Tradition of Book Printing in Ukraine
VII. The Cultural Legacy of the Kyivan Mohyla Academy
VIII. Ukrainian Music of the Baroque and Classical Periods
IX. The History of Higher Education in Ukraine
X. The Founders of Modern Ukrainian Historiography in the 19th Century
XI. The Hromada Movement and the Growth of Ukrainian National Consciousness
XII. Mykhailo Drahomanov and the First Ukrainian Political Program
XIII. The Clandestine Brotherhood of Taras and Its Proto-Nationalist Program
XIV. The Ukrainian Populist-Ethnographic Theater in Russian-ruled Ukraine
XV. Mykola Lysenko and the National School of Ukrainian Music
XVI. Scholarly Societies in Ukraine in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries
XVII. Les Kurbas, Berezil, and the Birth of Modern Ukrainian Theater
XVIII. Modernist Music in Soviet Ukraine: The 1920s Generation
XIX. Ukrainian Poetic Cinema
XX. The Ukrainian Music of the Socialist Realist Period (1930s-1950s)
XXI. Ukrainian Composers of the 1960s Generation



Go To Top Of Page  I. THE HISTORY AND CULTURAL LEGACY OF THE KYIVAN CAVE MONASTERY

The Kyivan Cave Monastery is not only one of the most interesting architectural ensembles in Eastern Europe, but it is one of the most important spiritual and cultural centres in the history of the Ukrainian people. Founded by Saint Anthony of the Caves in the mid-11th century, the monastery soon became the largest religious and cultural center in Kyivan Rus'. Foreign works were translated there, and books were transcribed and illuminated. Architecture and religious art (icons, mosaics, frescoes) developed in the monastery. In 1615 Archimandrite Yelysei Pletenetsky established the first printing press in Kyiv at the Kyivan Cave Monastery Press, which became an important center of publishing in Ukraine. Archimandrite (later Metropolitan) Petro Mohyla restored and embellished the monastery. Today the monastery complex is rich in important architectural monuments... Learn more about the Cave Monastery's history and major figures associated with it and view numerous illustrations depicting its architecture by visiting such entries as:



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KYIVAN CAVE MONASTERY (Kyievo-Pecherska Lavra). An Orthodox monastery in Kyiv. It was founded by Saint Anthony of the Caves in the mid-11th century near the village of Berestove in a cave that the future metropolitan of Kyiv, Ilarion, had excavated and lived in until 1051. The first monks excavated more caves and built a church above them. The monastery's first hegumen was Varlaam (to 1057). He was succeeded by Saint Theodosius of the Caves (ca 1062-74), who introduced the strict Studite rule. The Kyivan princes and boyars generously supported the monastery, donating money, valuables, and land, and building fortifications and churches; some even became monks. Many of the monks were from the educated, upper strata, and the monastery soon became the largest religious and cultural center in Kyivan Rus'. Twenty of its monks became bishops in the 12th and 13th centuries...

Kyivan Cave Monastery



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KYIVAN CAVE PATERICON (Kyievo-Pechers'kyi pateryk). A collection of tales about the monks of the Kyivan Cave Monastery. There exist two extant redactions: the Tver or Arsenian redaction of 1406, and the Kyiv or Cassianian redaction of 1462. The original version arose after 1215 but not later than 1230 out of the correspondence of two monks of the monastery-monk Simon (by then the bishop of Suzdal and Vladimir) and monk Polikarp, who used the epistolary form as a literary device. The letters contain 20 tales about righteous or sinful monks of the monastery based on oral legends and several written sources, such as the Life of Saint Anthony of the Caves and the Kyivan Cave and Rostov chronicles, which have not survived...

Kyivan Cave Patericon



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KYIVAN CAVE MONASTERY ICON PAINTING STUDIO (Lavrska ikonopysna maisternia). Main centre of Ukrainian icon painting for many centuries. Its founding at the end of the 11th century was connected with the painting (1083-9) of the Dormition Cathedral of the Kyivan Cave Monastery by Greek masters and the Kyivan artists Master Olimpii and Deacon Hryhorii. The studio developed a distinctive style that is evident in its frescoes, icons, and book illuminations. From the late 16th century, collections of prints by western and local artists and of student drawings were kept for educational purposes. The studio's finest masterpieces of the 18th century are the mural paintings of the Dormition Cathedral (1724-31) and the Trinity Church (1734-44) above the Main Gate of the Kyivan Cave Monastery. Many noted icon painters and engravers were trained at the studio...

Kyivan Cave Icon Studio



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SAINT ANTHONY OF THE CAVES (Sviatyi Antonii Pecherskyi; secular name: Antyp), b ca 983 in Liubech, Chernihiv region, d 1073 in Kyiv. As a youth he joined the monastery at Mount Athos, where he was tonsured and adopted the religious name Anthony. After many years he returned to Ukraine; reputedly he took up residence in a cave in which Metropolitan Ilarion had lived, near the village of Berestove, on the outskirts of Kyiv. Anthony's deeds and fasting attracted other monks, including Saint Theodosius of the Caves. This monastic community became the nucleus of the Kyivan Cave Monastery, and Anthony emerged as the founder of monasticism in Ukraine...

Saint Anthony



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DORMITION CATHEDRAL OF THE KYIVAN CAVE MONASTERY. The main church of the Kyivan Cave Monastery. Built in 1073-8 at the initiative of Saint Theodosius of the Caves during the hegumenship of Stefan of Kyiv and funded by Prince Sviatoslav II Yaroslavych. According to the Kyivan Cave Patericon, Master Olimpii was to have been one of the mosaic masters. At the end of the 11th century many additions to the cathedral were built, including Saint John's Baptistry in the form of a small church on the north side. In the 17th century more cupolas and decorative elements in the Cossack baroque style were added. As the Soviet Army retreated from Kyiv on 16-17 September 1941, mines were placed under the cathedral, and on 3 November it was blown up. The reconstruction of the cathedral began in 1998 and was completed in time for its reconsecration during the Ukrainian Independence Day ceremonies in August 2000...

Dormition Cathedral of the Caves Monastery



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries associated with the history and architecture of the Kyivan Caves Monastery were made possible by a generous donation from ARKADI MULAK-YATSKIVSKY of Los Angeles, CA, USA.



Go To Top Of Page  II. THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF UKRAINIAN LAW AND LEGAL TRADITION

Before states were formed, communities on Ukrainian territory were governed by customary law. The history of Ukrainian law is divided into periods according to the distinctive states that arose in Ukraine. In the Princely era (9th-14th centuries) the main sources of law were customary law, agreements such as international treaties, compacts among princes, contracts between princes and the people, princely decrees, viche decisions, and Byzantine law. The most original legal monument of the period is Ruskaia Pravda, which includes the principal norms of substantive and procedural law. The medieval Kyivan Rus' state declined, but its law continued to function. In the 14th to 15th centuries it was known as Rus' law in Ukrainian territories under Polish rule. Gradually, it was replaced by public as well as private Polish law. At the same time (14th-17th centuries) Lithuanian-Ruthenian law developed in Ukrainian territories within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The laws compiled in the Lithuanian Register and the Lithuanian Statute remained in force within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and, to some extent, in the Hetman state. The law of the Cossack period was based on the Hetman's treaties and legislative acts, the Lithuanian Statute, compilations of customary law and Germanic law, and court decisions. The autonomous Hetman state had its own law systematized in the Code of Laws of 1743. With the abolition of Ukrainian autonomy at the end of the 18th century, Russian law, first public and then civil, was introduced in Russian-ruled territories. In Western Ukraine, Austrian law was introduced in 1772-5... Learn more about the historical evolution of Ukrainian law by visiting the following entries:




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LAW. The set of compulsory rules governing relations among individuals as well as institutions in a given society. Being part of the national culture, the law is influenced by the beliefs of a society and is inextricably involved in its social, political, and economic development. The term for law, pravo, originally meant 'judgment' or 'trial.' The original legal tradition developed on Ukrainian lands came to an end in the 18th century, when foreign Russian law was introduced in Russian-ruled territories. In Western Ukraine, Austrian law was introduced in 1772-5. Except for state and political laws, the laws of the former regimes remained in force during the brief period of Ukraine's struggle for independence (1917-20). Ukrainian legislators and jurists did not have time to construct an independent system of law. During the Soviet period legal norms were determined not only by the constitution and the laws or decrees of the government, but also by the Communist Party program and the current Party line. Thus, law was an instrument of politics. Attempts to de-politicize law and bring it closer to European standards have been made in independent Ukraine since 1991...

Law



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CUSTOMARY LAW (zvychaieve pravo; also known as the unwritten law). Norms of conduct that are practiced in society because they have been accepted for a long time and are regarded as obligatory. Customary law in Ukraine dates back to prehistoric times. In the Princely era legal relations were governed by customary law, which was eventually codified in Ruskaia Pravda. The decrees issued by the princes explicated customary law rather than creating new law. With the demise of Kyivan Rus' Ukrainian customary law continued to operate even under the Tatars, who did not interfere in the internal affairs of their conquered territories, and then under Polish hegemony. The norms of Ukrainian customary law were preserved under Lithuanian rule and were codified in the Lithuanian Statute, which to a large extent, particularly in respect to civil, criminal, and procedural norms, was based on ancient Ukrainian customary law. In the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state the community courts were a judicial institution based on customary law. They continued to operate in the Cossack period, but their importance gradually diminished...

Customary law



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RUSKAIA PRAVDA (Rus' Truth [Law]). The most important collection of old Ukrainian-Rus' laws and an important source for the study of the legal and social history of Rus'-Ukraine and neighboring Slavic countries. It was compiled in the 11th and 12th centuries on the basis of customary law. The original text has never been found, but there are over 100 transcriptions in existence from the 13th to 18th centuries. There are three redactions of Ruskaia Pravda, the short, expanded, and condensed versions. The expanded redaction, consisting of 121 articles, was the most widespread. In the criminal law of the expanded redaction blood vengeance was replaced by monetary fines and state penalties. Serious crimes, such as horse stealing, robbery, and arson, were punished by banishment and seizure. With the exception of the most privileged strata in the society, all free citizens were protected by the code. Its main purpose was to provide individuals with the power to defend their right to life, health, and property and to provide courts with the basis for a fair judgment. A characteristic feature of Ruskaia Pravda is its evolution toward a more humane law system...

Ruskaia pravda



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LITHUANIAN-RUTHENIAN LAW [Lytovs'ko-Rus'ke pravo]. The system of law of the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state or, more precisely, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which from the 14th to the 18th century included Lithuania, Belarus, and most of Ukraine (to the Union of Lublin in 1569). The Lithuanian-Ruthenian law was initially based on Ruskaia Pravda and later on the Lithuanian Statute as well as Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian customary law. The systematic study of Lithuanian-Ruthenian law began in the first half of the 19th century. Polish historians considered it a local variant of Polish law, and Russian historians usually referred to it as 'western Russian' law and treated it as part of Russian law. Eventually, it was studied by Lithuanian, Belarusian, and Ukrainian historians and legal scholars, who accepted it as part of the legal history of all three nations...

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LITHUANIAN STATUTE. The code of laws of the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state, published in the 16th century in three basic editions. It was one of the most advanced legal codes of its time. The overriding concern of the First or Old Lithuanian Statute (1529) was to protect the interests of the state and nobility, especially the magnates. The Second Lithuanian Statute (1566), often called the Volhynian version because of the influence of the Volhynian nobility in its preparation, brought about major administrative-political reforms and expanded the privileges of the lower gentry. In the Third Lithuanian Statute (1588) many Polish concepts were introduced into the criminal and civil law, which were systematized anew. All three editions of the Lithuanian Statute were written in the contemporary Ruthenian chancellery language, which was a mixture of Church Slavonic, Ukrainian, and Belarusian. The Lithuanian Statute remained for several centuries the basic collection of laws in Ukraine. It was the main source of Ukrainian law for the Cossack Hetman state and the basic source of the Code of Laws of 1743. In Right-Bank Ukraine it remained in force until 1840, when it was annulled by Tsar Nicholas I...

Lithuanian Statute



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CODE OF LAWS OF 1743. Collection of prevailing Ukrainian laws in the Cossack Hetman state. The Russian government never ratified the code of laws, and hence it remained only a proposal, although it became the basic source of operative law in Ukraine in the 17th and 18th centuries. The code of laws was prepared by the committee composed of representatives of the higher clergy, Cossack officers, and municipal administrators. The main sources of the code were the Lithuanian Statute and the compilation of the Germanic law (Magdeburg law and Kulm law). In addition, hetman manifestos, Cossack court practice, and Ukrainian customary law were drawn on. In cases where no relevant law existed in the code, the code prescribed the use of other 'Christian' laws (law of analogy), court precedents, and customary law. The creative work of the committee consisted of the selection of quotes from written sources, their partial modification, and the incorporation of amendments to them. The prescriptions of criminal law reflected the severity of ancient law, moderated by the right of the court to reduce prescribed punishment 'according to circumstances of the case' and 'the severity of the crime'...

Code of Laws of 1743



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about the historical evolution of Ukrainian law and legal tradition were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  III. UKRAINIAN WANDERING BARDS: KOBZARS, BANDURYSTS, AND LIRNYKS

The artistic tradition of Ukrainian wandering bards, the kobzars (kobza players), bandurysts (bandura players), and lirnyks (lira players) is one of the most distinctive elements of Ukraine's cultural heritage. While kobzars first emerged in Kyivan Rus', bandurysts and lirnyks appeared and became popular in the 15th century. Kobzars often lived at the Zaporozhian Sich and accompanied the Cossacks on military campaigns. The epic songs they performed served to raise the morale of the Cossack army in times of war, and some (eg, Prokip Skriaha) were even beheaded by the Poles for performing dumas that incited popular revolts. As the Hetman state declined, so did the fortunes of the kobzars, and they gradually joined the ranks of mendicants, playing and begging for alms at rural marketplaces. In the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly from the 1870s, the kobzars, including the virtuoso Ostap Veresai, were persecuted by the tsarist regime as the propagators of Ukrainophile sentiments and historical memory. In the 1930s, during Stalin's Great Terror, several hundred kobzars and lirnyks were brought to a congress from all parts of Ukraine and after the congress ended almost all of them were shot... Learn more about the artistic legacy of the Ukrainian wandering bards by visiting the following entries:



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KOBZARS. Wandering folk bards who performed a large repertoire of epic-historical, religious, and folk songs while playing a kobza or bandura. Kobzars originally composed and performed their own historical songs and dumas in the recitative style and later added songs of various other genres (religious and humorous songs, dance melodies) to their repertoires, which were passed on to their students. Kobzars were held in high esteem by the Zaporozhian Cossacks. In the late 18th century the occupation of kobzar became the almost exclusive province of the blind and crippled, who organized kobzar brotherhoods to protect their corporate interests. In the 19th century, the few hundred remaining kobzars in Poltava, Kharkiv, and Chernihiv gubernias and their artistry aroused the interest of various ethnographers, composers, and painters, including Mykola Lysenko, Oleksander Rusov, and Lesia Ukrainka...

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BANDURA. A Ukrainian musical instrument similar in construction and appearance to a lute. The bandura has 32-55 strings: the 8-14 bass strings (bunty) are stretched along the neck, and the 24-43 treble strings (prystrunky) run along the side of the soundboard. Before the 20th century the bandura had various shapes and tunings (basically diatonic), but in recent times it has been standardized. The oldest record of a bandura-like instrument in Ukraine is an 11th-century fresco of court musicians (skomorokhy) in the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv. This lute-like instrument is probably the ancestor of the bandura and the kobza. The two instruments were related, but distinct. The kobza was smaller in size and had fewer strings, but these were fretted. Around the 16th century prystrunky were added to the bandura, and from that time only one note was obtained from each string...

Bandura



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DUMA. Lyrico-epic works of folk origin about events in the Cossack period of the 16th-17th century. The dumas differ from other lyrico-epic and historical poetry by their form and by the way in which they were performed. They did not have a set strophic structure, but consisted of uneven periods that were governed by the unfolding of the story. Each period constituted a finished, syntactical whole and conveyed a complete thought. The dumas were not sung, but were performed in recitative to the accompaniment of a bandura, kobza, or lira. The chanting had much in common with funeral lamentation. Scholars connect the dumas with the poetic forms that appeared in Ukraine in the 12th century, particularly with the Slovo o polku Ihorevi. One widely accepted theory of the origin of the dumas is that proposed by Pavlo Zhytetsky, according to which they were a unique synthesis of popular and 'bookish-intellectual' creativity...

Duma



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LIRNYKS. Wandering folk minstrels, often blind, who accompanied themselves on a lira, a folk string instrument introduced in Ukraine from the West in the 15th century. The sound of a lira is produced by cranking a rosined wheel against strings within the instrument. Most frequently, the lira has three strings; the two lower strings are monotonic, and the higher string leads the melody. Lirnyks appeared in Ukraine in the 15th century and had formed a guild by the end of the 17th century. There were special schools for them. Their repertoire consisted mainly of religious songs, although humorous and satirical songs were also popular. Some lirnyks specialized in historical songs and dumas. The lifestyle of lirnyks (as well as kobzars) is described by N. Kononenko in Ukrainian Minstrels: And the Blind Shall Sing (1998)...

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VERESAI, OSTAP, b 1803 in Kaliuzhyntsi, Pryluka county, Poltava gubernia, d April 1890 in Sokyryntsi, Pryluka county, Poltava gubernia. Kobza player and singer (tenor). A peasant who became blind in his early youth, he studied from 1818 with S. Koshovy and other kobzars. By the 1860s he was the most renowned performer of Ukrainian epic and historical songs. In 1873 he appeared in recital for the Southwestern Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society and in 1875 concertized in Saint Petersburg. His repertoire included the dumas Kinless Fedir, Three Brothers from Azov, and Oleksii Popovych. Veresai's artistry was studied by ethnographers such as Oleksander Rusov and Pavlo Chubynsky, as well as by Mykola Lysenko, who wrote a monograph on the works in Veresai's repertoire (1873, 1978)...

Ostap Veresai



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PARKHOMENKO, TERENTII, b 28 October 1872 in Voloskivtsi, Sosnytsia county, Chernihiv gubernia, d 23 March 1910 in Voloskivtsi. Kobzar. Having lost his sight at 10 he studied the kobza under A. Hoidenko and others and then for five years wandered with Hoidenko through Ukraine. At 30 he began to teach the kobza. Some of his students (Petro Tkachenko-Halashko, Serdiuk-Pereliub, and Avram Hrebin) became noted folk singers. He corresponded with Mykola Lysenko, Opanas Slastion, Oleksander Malynka, Mikhail Speransky, Lesia Ukrainka, Ivan Franko, and Volodymyr Hnatiuk. He gave concerts in Kyiv, Poltava, Nizhyn, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Uman, Vinnytsia, Yelysavethrad, and Warsaw. His repertoire included dumas, historical songs, psalms, lyrical songs, and satires. Because his songs awakened national consciousness among the peasants, he was harassed by the authorities. He died as a result of a police beating...

Terentii Parkhomenko



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about the Ukrainian wandering bards were made possible by a generous donation from ARKADI MULAK-YATSKIVSKY of Los Angeles, CA, USA.



Go To Top Of Page  IV. OSTRIH ACADEMY: EASTERN EUROPE'S FIRST INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING

Founded ca 1576 in Ostrih, Volhynia, by a Ukrainian nobleman Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky--one of the most remarkable figures in the 16th-century Ukrainian cultural and national rebirth--the Ostih Academy was the first postsecondary learning center in the Orthodox Eastern Europe. At a time when Catholicism was making inroads into Western Ukraine, the academy was a bastion of Orthodoxy and Ruthenian culture and maintained the traditional orientation toward Constantinople. Though the Ostrih Academy did not develop into a Western European-style university, as Ostrozky had hoped, it was the foremost Orthodox academy of its time. Closely associated with the Ostrih Press, the academy and the Ostrih intellectual circle had an enduring influence on pedagogical thought and the organization of schools in Ukraine and provided a model for the brotherhood schools that were later founded in Lviv, Lutsk, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Vilnius, and Brest. The legacy and tradition of the Ostrih Academy has endured until today and became the basis for the establishment in 1994 of the Ostrih Higher Collegium, which was conferred university status in 2000 and renamed the Ostrih Academy National University... Learn more about the Ostrih Academy and Ostrih intellectual circle by visiting the following entries:



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OSTRIH ACADEMY. The first rector of the academy was the writer Herasym Smotrytsky. The instructors, many of whom had been invited from Constantinople, included the pseudonymous Ostrozkyi Kliryk, the Greek Cyril Lucaris, J. Latos (a philosopher from Cracow University), and Yov Boretsky, who later became rector of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood School and then metropolitan of Kyiv. The curriculum consisted of Church Slavonic, Greek, Latin, theology, philosophy, medicine, natural science, and the classical free studies (mathematics, astronomy, grammar, rhetoric, and logic). In addition the academy was renowned for choral singing. The academy was closely affiliated with the Ostrih Press. Hetman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny, the writer and scholar Meletii Smotrytsky, and several other prominent political and cultural leaders studied at the academy. With the founding of a rival Jesuit college in Ostrih in 1624, the academy went into decline, and by 1636 it had ceased to exist...

Ostrih Academy



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OSTROZKY, KOSTIANTYN VASYL, (Polish: Ostrogski, Konstantyn), b 1526 or 1527 in Dubno, Volhynia, d 23 February 1608 in Ostrih, Volhynia. Ukrainian nobleman and political and cultural figure; starosta of Volodymyr-Volynskyi and marshal of Volhynia from 1550, voivode of Kyiv from 1559, and senator from 1569; the most powerful magnate in Volhynia and one of the most influential figures in the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was a candidate for the Polish throne after the death of Sigismund II Augustus (the last member of the Jagiellon dynasty) in 1572, and for the Muscovite throne after the death of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich (the last member of the Riurykide dynasty) in 1598. Ostrozky defended Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belarusian) political rights and was the de facto leader of Ukraine in the negotiations leading up to the 1569 Union of Lublin, during which he demanded that Ruthenia be treated as an equal partner of Poland and Lithuania...

Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky



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SMOTRYTSKY, HERASYM, b ? in Smotrych (now in Dunaivtsi raion, Khmelnytskyi oblast), d October 1594. Writer and teacher; father of Meletii Smotrytsky. He was secretary at the Kamianets-Podilskyi county office and in 1576 was invited by Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky to Ostrih, where he became one of the leading activist members of the Ostrih intellectual circle. In 1580 Smotrytsky became the first rector of the Ostrih Academy. He was one of the publishers of the Ostrih Bible, to which he wrote the foreword and the verse dedication to Prince Ostrozky. The dedication is one of the earliest examples of Ukrainian versification (nonsyllabic) and is somewhat reminiscent of Ukrainian dumas. Smotrytsky's polemical works against those betraying the Orthodox faith and a satire on the clergy have been lost. Only his book, Kliuch tsarstva nebesnoho (Key to the Heavenly Kingdom, 1587), which is the first printed example of Ukrainian polemical literature, has survived...

Herasym Smotrytsky



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OSTRIH PRESS. The second oldest printing press in Ukraine, founded in 1578 by Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov) with the financial backing of Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky at the prince's castle in Ostrih, Volhynia. Its first publications were Azbuka (Alphabet, 1578), a collection of prayers in Greek and Church Slavonic; the second impression of Fedorovych's Bukvar (1578), the first Ukrainian primer; the first Ukrainian edition of the New Testament and an alphabetical index to it (1580); the Ostrih Bible (1581); and the first poetic work printed in Cyrillic, Andrii Rymsha's Khronolohiia (Chronology, 1581). It also printed pro-Orthodox, anti-Uniate polemical literature, including works by Herasym Smotrytsky, V. Surazky, Ostrozky, Khrystofor Filalet, and the pseudonymous Ostrozkyi Kliryk; a book (1598) containing eight epistles by Meletios Pegas and one by Ivan Vyshensky (his only work published during his lifetime); several liturgical books; and works by Saint Basil the Great and Saint John Chrysostom in Church Slavonic translation...

Ostrih Press



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OSTRIH BIBLE. The first full Church Slavonic edition of the canonical Old and New Testaments and the first three books of the Maccabees, printed in Ostrih in 1580-1 by Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov) in 1,500-2,000 copies. The preparation of the text and the printing were funded by Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky. With close to 1,400 headpieces, initials, and tailpieces, the 628-folio book is one of the finest examples of printing in late 16th-century Ukraine. The text was based on all the Church Slavonic and Greek sources of the Bible (including the complete 1499 Bible of Archbishop Gennadii of Novgorod the Great) collected by Ostrozky. The Old Testament sources were verified against the Septuagint or translated anew (sometimes incorrectly) by scholars directed by Herasym Smotrytsky at the Ostrih Academy. The Bible includes Ostrozky's and Smotrytsky's prefaces, Smotrytsky's heraldic verses dedicated to Ostrozky, and Fedorovych's postscript. The Bible was reprinted with minor revisions in a unified orthography in Moscow in 1663...

Ostrih Bible



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries dealing with the Ostrih Academy and Ostrih intellectual circle were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  V. BROTHERHOODS: THE PROMOTERS OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE IN EARLY MODERN UKRAINE

Ukraine and Belarus were the only countries where Orthodox lay brotherhoods came into being. Although structurally similar to their western European counterparts, the Eastern-rite brotherhoods developed their unique features and their activities coincided with a period of crucial social and cultural change in early modern Ukraine. The Ukrainian brotherhoods assumed the task of defending the Orthodox faith and Ukrainian nationality by counteracting Catholic and particularly Jesuit expansionism, Polonization, and later conversion to the Uniate church. The schools attached to the Orthodox brotherhoods in several larger cities disseminated European humanist ideas and introduced generally accessible post-humanist education, while the brotherhood presses promoted the development of scholarship and literature. Learn more about the brotherhoods and their crucial influence on education and culture in early modern Ukraine by visiting the following entries:



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BROTHERHOODS. Fraternities affiliated with individual churches in Ukraine and Belarus that performed a number of religious and secular functions. The origins of brotherhoods can be traced back to the medieval bratchyny, which were organized at churches in the Princely era. Brotherhoods as such appeared in Ukraine in the mid-15th century, with the rise of the burgher class. They began to play a historical role in the second half of the 16th and at the beginning of the 17th century. The brotherhoods endeavored to reform the Orthodox church from within by condemning the corrupt practices of the hierarchy and of individual clergymen. They brought about a revival in the life of the church by promoting cultural and educational activity. They founded brotherhood schools, printing presses, and libraries...

Brotherhoods



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BROTHERHOOD SCHOOLS. Schools founded by religious brotherhoods for the purposes of counteracting the denationalizing influence of Catholic (Jesuit) and Protestant schools and of preserving the Orthodox faith began to appear in the 1580s. The first school was established in 1586 by the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood. The school served as a model for other brotherhood schools in various towns of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, most of them in Ukraine and Belarus. In the first half of the 17th century even some villages had brotherhood schools. The most prominent schools were the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood School and Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood School. In 1631, the latter was merged with the Kyivan Cave Monastery School to form the Kyivan Mohyla College, which later became the Kyivan Mohyla Academy...

Brotherhood schools



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LVIV DORMITION BROTHERHOOD. An Orthodox religious association founded in the 15th century by Lviv merchants and tradesmen at the Dormition Church in Lviv. It is the oldest and one of the leading Ukrainian brotherhoods, and it served as an example to other brotherhoods. There are historical references to it dating back to 1463. According to its charter, which was confirmed by Patriarch Joachim V of Antioch in 1586 and Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople in 1589, the brotherhood was independent of the local bishops (right of stauropegion) and subject directly to the Patriarch of Constantinople. It had the right to oversee the activities not only of secular members of the church but also of the clergy and even the bishops...

Lviv Brotherhood



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KYIV EPIPHANY BROTHERHOOD. A church brotherhood established ca 1615 at the Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood Monastery in the Podil district by wealthy burghers, nobles, clerics, and Cossacks to defend the Orthodox faith from the onslaught of Polish rule and Catholicism. Hetman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny gave it a great deal of support and joined it 'with the entire Zaporozhian Host' in 1620. That same year the Orthodox Kyiv metropoly was restored and the brotherhood acquired stauropegion status and the right to establish a 'brotherhood for young men' from the visiting patriarch of Jerusalem, Theophanes III. The Polish king Sigismund III Vasa granted the brotherhood a royal charter in 1629...

Kyiv Brotherhood



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LUTSK BROTHERHOOD OF THE ELEVATION OF THE CROSS. A renowned Orthodox brotherhood founded in 1617 in Lutsk by H. Mykulych, the hegumen of the Chernchytsi monastery located near the city. The Lutsk Brotherhood included monks, priests, bishops, nobles, aristocrats, and members of the middle class from Lutsk and Volhynia. It received a charter from the Polish king Sigismund III Vasa in 1619 and was granted the status of stauropegion by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1623. It ran the Lutsk Brotherhood of the Elevation of the Cross School and operated a printing press in the monastery. After Bohdan Khmelnytsky's era the brotherhood entered a period of steady decline...

Lutsk Brotherhood



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries dedicated to the brotherhoods and their influence on Ukrainian education and culture were made possible by the financial support of the STEPHEN AND OLGA PAWLUK UKRAINIAN STUDIES ENDOWMENT FUND at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (Edmonton, AB, Canada).



Go To Top Of Page  VI. THE ORIGINS AND TRADITION OF BOOK PRINTING IN UKRAINE

The invention of movable type and printing presses in Germany around 1450 had a tremendous and lasting influence on the cultural, social, religious, and scientific development of Europe. As the printing technologies spread throughout the continent and allowed for a quicker and wider dissemination of knowledge, they became a major catalyst for both the Reformation and the later scientific revolution. Printed books represented the key factor in the spread of education and literacy. In Ukraine, the first printing press was founded by Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov) in Lviv in 1573. Its equipment and assets were used to found the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood Press (1591-1788), which played a key role in the history of early Ukrainian printing. Printing in Volhynia began after Fedorovych entered the service of Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky and founded what became the important Ostrih Press (1577-1612). Founded in the early 17th century the Kyivan Cave Monastery Press became the most important center of printing and engraving in Ukraine until the mid 19th century; it played a crucial role in raising the level of education and culture and in aiding the Orthodox Ukrainians to defend themselves against the inroads of Polonization and Catholicism... Learn more about the origins and traditions of book printing in Ukraine by visiting the following entries:



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PRINTING. The earliest books printed in the Ukrainian redaction of Church Slavonic and in the Cyrillic alphabet in general--the Orthodox Octoechos and Horologion--were produced in 1491 by Szwajpolt Fiol, a Franconian expatriate in Cracow. These were followed by liturgical books produced in the Lithuanian-Ruthenian state by short-lived presses on Belarusian territory, such as Frantsisk Skoryna's in Vilnius (1525), Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov) and Piotr Mstislavets's in Zabludiv (now Zabludow, 1568-70), and Vasyl Tsiapinsky's itinerant press (ca 1565-70). The first printing press on Ukrainian territory was founded by Fedorovych in Lviv (1573-4). Thereafter Lviv remained a major printing center. In Kyiv, printing began with the founding of the Kyivan Cave Monastery Press (1615-1918). In Left-Bank Ukraine the first printing presses were those of Kyrylo Stavrovetsky-Tranquillon in Chernihiv (1646) and Archbishop Lazar Baranovych in Novhorod-Siverskyi (1674-9)...

Printing



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FEDOROVYCH (FEDOROV), IVAN, b ca 1525, d 16 December 1583 in Lviv. Fedorovych was the founder of book printing and book publishing in Russia and Ukraine. He was deacon of Saint Nicholas Gostunsky Church in Moscow, where, from 1553, he oversaw the construction of a printing house commissioned by Tsar Ivan IV. This technical innovation created competition for the Muscovite scribes, who persecuted Fedorovych and finally caused him to flee to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Settling in Zabludow (Zabludiv) on the Ukrainian-Belarusian border, he changed his surname from Fedorov to Fedorovych. He moved to Lviv in 1572. In 1575 Fedorovych, in the service of Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky, was placed in charge of the Derman Monastery; in 1577-9 he established the Ostrih Press, where, in 1581, he published the Ostrih Bible. He returned to Lviv after a quarrel with Prince Ostrozky, but his attempt to reopen his printing shop was unsuccessful. His printery became the property of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood...

Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov)



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OSTRIH PRESS. The second oldest printing press in Ukraine, founded in 1578 by Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov) with the financial backing of Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky at the prince's castle in Ostrih, Volhynia. Its first publications were Azbuka (Alphabet, 1578), a collection of prayers in Greek and Church Slavonic; the second impression of Fedorovych's Bukvar (1578), the first Ukrainian primer; the first Ukrainian edition of the New Testament and an alphabetical index to it (1580); the Ostrih Bible (1581); and the first poetic work printed in Cyrillic, Andrii Rymsha's Khronolohiia (Chronology, 1581). It also printed pro-Orthodox, anti-Uniate polemical literature, including works by Herasym Smotrytsky, Vasyl Surazky, Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky, Khrystofor Filalet, and the pseudonymous Ostrozkyi Kliryk. The press functioned, with some interruptions, until 1612; from 1602 to 1605 it operated at the Derman Monastery...

Ostrih Press



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LVIV DORMITION BROTHERHOOD PRESS. A press founded by the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood in 1586. With a printing press and other equipment used by Ivan Fedorovych (Fedorov), it printed liturgical books, primers, poetry, dramas, and theological, educational, and polemical literature. Its oldest extant publications date from 1591: the 1589 charter of Patriarch Jeremiah II granting the brotherhood the right of stauropegion, a booklet of verses in honor of Metropolitan Mykhailo Rahoza, and the grammar Adelphotes. From 1591 to 1722 the press issued 140 books with a total run of some 160,000 copies. They were distributed throughout Polish-ruled Ukraine and Belarus, and even in Wallachia, Moldavia, Serbia, and Bulgaria. They were not, however, permitted to be sold in Russian-ruled Ukraine until 1707. The press played an important role in the intellectual life of Ukraine and the defense of the Orthodox church. In 1788 the Lviv brotherhood and its press were succeeded by the Stauropegion Institute...

Lviv Dormition Brotherhood Press



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KYIVAN CAVE MONASTERY PRESS. The first imprimery in Kyiv and the most important center of printing and engraving in Ukraine in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was founded ca 1606-15 at the Kyivan Cave Monastery by the archimandrite Yelysei Pletenetsky, who purchased the equipment of the former Striatyn Press of Hedeon Balaban in Galicia. Later it was headed by, among others, Zakhariia Kopystensky, Petro Mohyla, Innokentii Gizel (for over 30 years), Varlaam Yasynsky, and Yoasaf Krokovsky. The imprimery issued several hundred titles on various subjects, both original works and translations, in Ukrainian, Church Slavonic, Polish, Russian, Latin, and Greek. Beautifully engraved and ornamented, they were distributed throughout the Slavic countries, as well as Austria, Greece, and Moldavia. In the 16th and 17th centuries the imprimery played an important role in raising the level of education and culture in Ukraine. The tsarist ukase of 1720 limited it to printing only religious works, which it continued to do until 1918...

Kyivan Cave Monastery Press



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries featuring the origins and traditions of book printing in Ukraine were made possible by the financial support from the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  VII. THE CULTURAL LEGACY OF THE KYIVAN MOHYLA ACADEMY

Established in 1632, Kyivan Mohyla Academy developed into the leading center of higher education in 17th- and 18th-century Ukraine, which exerted a significant intellectual influence over the entire Orthodox world. In founding the school, Metropolitan Petro Mohyla's purpose was to master the intellectual skills and learning of contemporary Europe and to apply them to the defense of the Orthodox faith. Taking his most dangerous adversary as the model, he adopted the organizational structure, the teaching methods, and the curriculum of the Jesuit schools. From its beginnings, the academy had close ties with the Cossack starshyna, which provided it with moral and material support. The school, in turn, educated the succeeding generation of the service elite. Many of the most accomplished Ukrainian authors and churchmen of the time served on the school's faculty, and some of them played instrumental roles in Peter I's educational reforms. Among the academy's most famous students was the renown philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda... Learn more about the history and cultural legacy of the Kyivan Mohyla Academy by visiting the following entries:



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KYIVAN MOHYLA ACADEMY. Established by Petro Mohyla through the merger of the Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood School (est 1615-16) with the Kyivan Cave Monastery School (est 1631 by Mohyla), the new school was conceived by its founder as an academy, ie, an institution of higher learning offering philosophy and theology courses and supervising a network of secondary schools. Completing the Orthodox school system, it was to compete on an equal footing with Polish academies run by the Jesuits. Fearing such competition, King Wladyslaw IV Vasa granted the school the status of a mere college or secondary school, and prohibited it from teaching philosophy and theology. It was only in 1694 that the Kyivan Mohyla College (Collegium Kijoviense Mohileanum) was granted the full privileges of an academy, and only in 1701 that it was recognized officially as an academy by Peter I...

Kyivan Mohyla Academy



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MOHYLA, PETRO, b 10 January 1597 in Moldavia, d 11 January 1647 in Kyiv. Ukrainian metropolitan, noble, and cultural figure; son of Simeon, hospodar of Wallachia (1601-2) and Moldavia (1606-7), and the Hungarian princess Margareta. After his father's murder in 1607, Mohyla and his mother sought refuge in Western Ukraine. He was tutored by teachers of the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood School, and pursued higher education in theology at the Zamostia Academy and in Netherlands and France. After his return to Ukraine he entered the military service and fought as an officer in the Battle of Cecora (1620) and Battle of Khotyn (1621). In 1621-7 he received estates in the Kyiv region and became interested in affairs of the Ukrainian Orthodox church. In September 1627 a dietine in Zhytomyr chose Mohyla to succeed the late Zakhariia Kopystensky as archimandrite of the influential Kyivan Cave Monastery...

Mohyla, Petro



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PROKOPOVYCH, TEOFAN, b 18 June 1681 in Kyiv, d 19 September 1736 in Saint Petersburg. Orthodox archbishop, writer, scholar, and philosopher. He graduated from the Kyivan Mohyla Academy in 1696 and continued his education in Lithuania, Poland, and at the Saint Athanasius Greek College in Rome. In 1704 he returned to the Mohyla Academy to teach poetics, rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. He also served as prefect from 1708 and rector in 1711-16. He gained prominence as a writer and as a supporter of Hetman Ivan Mazepa. His most famous work, Vladimir, is dedicated to the hetman, whom he depicted as the figure of the Grand Prince of Kyiv. Following Mazepa's unsuccessful revolt against Tsar Peter I in 1709, however, Prokopovych denounced him and expressed his complete allegiance to Peter...

Teofan Prokopovych



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YAVORSKY, STEFAN, b 1658 in Yavoriv, Galicia, d 27 November 1722 in Moscow. Orthodox hierarch, theologian, poet, and philosopher. A graduate of the Kyivan Mohyla College (ca 1684), he completed his education in Polish Jesuit colleges. After returning to Kyiv in 1687, he renounced Catholicism, became an Orthodox monk (1689), and taught rhetoric (1690), philosophy (1691-3), and theology (1693-8) at the Kyivan Mohyla Academy. He was hegumen of Saint Nicholas's Monastery in Kyiv from 1697; in 1700 he was appointed metropolitan of Riazan and Murom in Russia, and on 1 December 1701, exarch in Moscow of the Russian Orthodox church, by Emperor Peter I. Yavorsky helped Peter to reform the church and education. Eventually his defense of church autonomy, criticism of Peter, opposition to Teofan Prokopovych, and intolerance of Protestantism cost him the tsar's favor...

Stefan Yavorsky



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SKOVORODA, HRYHORII, b 3 December 1722 in Chornukhy, Lubni regiment, d 9 November 1794 in Pan-Ivanivka, Kharkiv vicegerency. Philosopher and poet. He was educated at the Kyivan Mohyla Academy (1734-53, with two interruptions). He sang in Empress Elizabeth I's court Kapelle in Saint Petersburg (1741-4), served as music director at the Russian imperial mission in Tokai, Hungary (1745-50), and taught poetics at Pereiaslav College (1751). He resumed his studies at the Kyivan academy, but left after completing only two years of the four-year theology course to serve as tutor to V. Tomara (1753-9). He spent the next 10 years in Kharkiv, teaching at Kharkiv College. After his dismissal from the college he spent the rest of his life wandering about eastern Ukraine, particularly Slobidska Ukraine. Material support from friends enabled him to devote himself to reflection and writing...

Hryhorii Skovoroda



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries associated with the history and cultural legacy of the Kyivan Mohyla Academy were made possible by a generous donation from ARKADI MULAK-YATSKIVSKY of Los Angeles, CA, USA.



Go To Top Of Page  VIII. UKRAINIAN MUSIC OF THE BAROQUE AND CLASSICAL PERIODS

The chief characteristics of Ukrainian religious music in the Middle Ages were a cappella singing and monophony. The melodies were recorded in a nonlinear notation, called znamenna, written in above the words of the liturgical services. In the 14th to 17th centuries the development of music in Ukraine was greatly influenced by church brotherhoods and their choirs. A significant innovation was the introduction of polyphonic singing, leading to the development of the five-line notation called kyivske znamia that replaced the non-linear notation. The 'musical grammar,' written by the musicologist and composer Mykola Dyletsky in 1675, was a complete description of the theory of polyphonic music. A favorite musical form of the time was the partesnyi concert, an a cappella composition for choir, consisting of one movement written to a religious text. The 18th century witnessed a paradoxical situation in which Ukrainian music started to reach a higher level of maturity and sophistication that was ultimately absorbed by Russian musical development. The Kyivan Mohyla Academy had an orchestra and choir comprising up to 100 musicians and 300 singers. The Hlukhiv Singing School provided thorough education for future musicians. But the musical talents of Ukraine usually did not remain in Ukraine; they were being drawn into the developing Russian musical life on an ever-increasing scale. The start of this trend could be seen already in the late 17th century, when Dyletsky was summoned to Moscow by the tsar to teach the rudiments of polyphonic singing, and in the early 18th century with the appointment of Ivan Popovsky as the precentor of the imperial court choir (and his subsequent recruitment of singers from Ukraine). From that time on, the most talented graduates of the Hlukhiv school were routinely brought to Saint Petersburg to further their musical education. The outcome of these practices can be seen by the late 18th century, when a trio of the most talented Ukrainian musicians of the age--Maksym Berezovsky, Dmytro Bortniansky, and Artem Vedel--composed exceptional works that became commonly regarded as 'Russian' music in the West... Learn more about the Ukrainian music of the Baroque and Classical periods by visiting the following entries:




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CHURCH MUSIC. Religious music existed in Ukraine before the official adoption of Christianity, in the form of plainsong or musica practica. With the conversion to Christianity in 988, the Byzantine chant was imported together with Byzantine ritual. The distinguishing feature of Ukrainian church music was its exclusively vocal nature. An original Ukrainian church music first emerged in the 11th century at the Kyivan Cave Monastery, where the so-called Kyivan Cave Monastery chant was evolved. From the mid-16th to the end of the 17th century a contrapuntal or polyphonic singing (vocal music with simultaneous but melodically independent parts or voices) was developed in Ukraine. Polyphonic music was cultivated primarily by church brotherhood choirs. The choral concerto in one movement, composed for non-liturgical texts, became a very popular form. The composers of polyphonic music were, among others, Mykola Dyletsky and Andrii Rachynsky. Several outstanding Ukrainian composers of liturgical music, including Maksym Berezovsky, Artem Vedel, and Dmytro Bortniansky, emerged during the latter half of the 18th century...

Church music



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DYLETSKY, MYKOLA, b 1650? in Kyiv, d 1723? Music theoretician, composer, pedagogue. Dyletsky studied in Vilnius (1675) and worked for some time in Smolensk (1677), Kyiv, Moscow (1679), Saint Petersburg, Lviv, and Cracow. He was a master of polyphonic choral music. Among his works are compositions for four voices and eight voices, liturgical music, various motets, and canons. His most important theoretical work was Hramatyka muzykal'na (Musical Grammar), a textbook of polyphonic singing, which explains the fundamental theory of music, some principles of counterpoint, and the general rules of composition; it is illustrated by selections from the works of Dyletsky himself, M. Zamarevych, Ziuzka (probable pseudonym of either Lavrentii Zyzanii or Stepan Zyzanii), I. Koliada, M. Mylchevsky, Ye. Zakonnyk, and others. His theoretical views are augmented by comments on esthetics and on the educational value of music. The original text of the work, written in Vilnius in 1675, is not extant, but it exists in several variants and new redactions: 20 manuscript transcriptions are known...

Mykola Dyletsky



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BEREZOVSKY, MAKSYM, b 27 October 1745 in Hlukhiv, d 2 April 1777 in Saint Petersburg. A prominent composer, one of the creators of the Ukrainian choral style in sacred music. Berezovsky studied at the Kyivan Mohyla Academy and sang in the court choir in Saint Petersburg. From 1759 to 1760 he performed as soloist with the Italian opera company in Oranienbaum near Saint Petersburg. From 1765 to 1774 he studied in Bologna, Italy, under Giovanni Battista Martini, and in 1771 gained the title of maestro di musica and became a member of the Bologna Philharmonic Academy. In 1775 he returned to Saint Petersburg, where, as a result of court intrigues and difficult circumstances, he committed suicide. Berezovsky was the first representative of the early Classicist style in Ukrainian music. He was the composer of the opera Demofonte, a sonata for violin and harpsichord, and of a series of sacred works (including 12 concertos), of which only a few have been preserved. The recent discovery of his unknown Symphony No. 11 indicates that a considerable number of his other instrumental compositions must have been lost...

Maksym Berezovsky



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BORTNIANSKY, DMYTRO, b 1751 in Hlukhiv, d 10 October 1825 in Saint Petersburg. A prominent composer and conductor. After studying in the Hlukhiv Singing School, Bortniansky became a member of the court choir in Saint Petersburg in 1758. From 1769 to 1779 he studied in Italy, where he composed several operas to Italian librettos. Bortniansky also wrote liturgical works to Latin and German texts. On his return to Saint Petersburg he became a court composer, teacher, and conductor. During this period he composed his three French operas in 1786 and 1787. At the same time Bortniansky wrote a number of instrumental works (piano sonatas and a piano quintet with harp). In 1790 he wrote his Concerto-Symphony which for a long time (until the discovery of an earlier symphony by Maksym Berezovsky) was considered to be the first symphonic work composed in the Russian Empire. In 1796 he became the director of the court choir, which was composed mostly of Ukrainians and which he raised to a new level of excellence. During this period Bortniansky composed over 100 choral religious works...

Dmytro Bortniansky



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VEDEL, ARTEM, b 13 April 1767 in Kyiv, d 26 July 1808 in Kyiv. Composer, conductor, singer (tenor), violinist, and teacher. Educated at the Kyivan Mohyla Academy, Vedel worked briefly as a choirmaster in Moscow. In 1792 he returned to Kyiv to conduct a military choir. The period 1792-7 saw the height of his musical creativity and he composed most of his choral concertos and other works at that time. In 1797 Tsar Paul I prohibited the performances in churches of choral concertos or any other forms except for liturgical music. This prohibition proved particularly harmful to musical culture in Ukraine where choral concertos were particularly popular. Left without work, Vedel briefly joined the Kyivan Cave Monastery. He was banished to a mental asylum in 1799 after church authorities attributed to him some irreverent marginal notes scribbled in a religious book. The incarceration ended Vedel's creative work and led to his premature death. The publication and performance of his works were banned for over one hundred years after his death. Oleksander Koshyts was one of the first choirmasters to include Vedel's works in his choir's repertoire...

Artem Vedel



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries featuring the Ukrainian music of the Baroque and Classical periods were made possible by the financial support of the STEPHEN AND OLGA PAWLUK UKRAINIAN STUDIES ENDOWMENT FUND at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (Edmonton, AB, Canada).



Go To Top Of Page  IX. THE HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN UKRAINE

The origin of higher education in Ukraine can be traced back to the confessional colleges that arose in the period of religious strife (16th-17th century). The colleges organized by the Jesuits served as a model for similar Orthodox and later Uniate (Greek-Catholic) schools. According to their standard curriculum, which consisted of three lower grades (infima, grammar, and syntax) and two intermediate grades (poetics and rhetoric) and required six years to complete, these schools were institutions of secondary education. Yet some of them offered courses belonging to the higher grades (philosophy, requiring three years, and theology, requiring four years) that were typical of academies. The Jesuits established a number of such higher colleges in Ukrainian and Belarusian territories: in Vilnius (est 1570, academy from 1578), Lviv (1608), Brest (first quarter of the 17th century), etc. A full higher education could be obtained by Ukrainians only at the Jesuit-run academy in Lviv (1661-1763), Vilnius, Zamosc (Zamostia Academy), or Cracow. Despite its name, the Ostrih Academy (est ca 1580 by the Orthodox Prince Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky) did not offer a higher education. The only Orthodox college that provided a partial higher education was the Kyivan Mohyla College (est 1632). In spite of a royal prohibition (1635), philosophy and theology courses were offered at the school on an irregular basis until philosophy and theology grades were permanently established as part of the curriculum in the 1680s. It was only in 1701 that the school was recognized officially as an academy: the Kyivan Mohyla Academy. Among the numerous Uniate colleges run by the Basilian monastic order only a few--in Zhyrovichy, Buchach, and Volodymyr-Volynskyi--introduced some courses of the higher grades in the 18th century... Learn more about the history of higher education in Ukraine by visiting the following entries:




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HIGHER EDUCATION. The first university in Ukraine--Lviv University--was founded in 1784. The language of instruction was Latin, but literary Ukrainian (Ruthenian) of the period was used in the Studium Ruthenum, a special institute of the university for educating candidates for the Uniate (Greek-Catholic) priesthood. The German character of the university was underlined when German was adopted as the language of instruction in 1817. In Russian-ruled Ukraine a number of university projects were drawn up in the 18th century. Hetman Kyrylo Rozumovsky in 1760 proposed to establish a university in Baturyn. Under Catherine II Ukrainian deputies to the Legislative Commission of 1767-9 demanded that a university be founded in Kyiv or Pereiaslav. The nobility of the Sumy and Chernihiv regions collected funds to build universities in their respective capitals. Prince Grigorii Potemkin fostered a plan to open a university in Katerynoslav. The first university in Russian-ruled Ukraine was finally established in Kharkiv in 1805. The project proposed by Vasyl Karazyn became a reality as a result of the generosity of the local nobility. Although the language of instruction was Russian, as in all higher schools in Russian-ruled Ukraine, the university became the home of the Kharkiv Romantic School and played an important role in the Ukrainian national awakening in the 19th century. In 1820 the Bezborodko Gymnasium of Higher Education, later known as the Nizhyn Lyceum, was opened in Nizhyn. Its nine-year program was more demanding than that of a secondary level and compared favorably with that offered by Russian universities...

Higher Education



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KYIVAN MOHYLA ACADEMY. The leading center of higher education in 17th- and 18th-century Ukraine, which exerted a significant intellectual influence over the entire Orthodox world at the time. Established in 1632 by Petro Mohyla through the merger of the Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood School with the Kyivan Cave Monastery School, the new school was conceived by its founder as an academy, ie, an institution of higher learning offering philosophy and theology courses. Completing the Orthodox school system, it was to compete on an equal footing with Polish academies run by the Jesuits. Fearing such competition, King Wladyslaw IV Vasa granted the school the status of a mere college, and prohibited it from teaching philosophy and theology. It was only in 1694 that the Kyivan Mohyla College was granted the full privileges of an academy, and only in 1701 that it was recognized officially as an academy by Peter I. In founding the school, Petro Mohyla's purpose was to master the intellectual skills and learning of contemporary Europe and to apply them to the defense of the Orthodox faith. Taking his most dangerous adversary as the model, he adopted the organizational structure, the teaching methods, and the curriculum of the Jesuit schools. Unlike other Orthodox schools, which emphasized Church Slavonic and Greek, Mohyla's college gave primacy to Latin and Polish. From its beginnings, the academy had close ties with the Cossack starshyna, which provided it with moral and material support. Many of the most accomplished Ukrainian authors and churchmen of the time served on the school's faculty...

Kyivan Mohyla Academy



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LVIV UNIVERSITY. The oldest university in Ukraine, established in 1784 by the emperor of Austria Joseph II with Latin as the language of instruction. Candidates for the priesthood who knew no Latin could study in the vernacular, but only after the establishment of the Studium Ruthenum in 1787. In 1805 the university was transformed into a lyceum, and in 1817 the university status was restored and German became the language of instruction. During the Revolution of 1848-9 in the Habsburg monarchy, demands were raised for the introduction of the Ukrainian and Polish languages. In 1849 the chair of Ukrainian language and literature was established (first held by Yakiv Holovatsky). Ukrainian-language instruction was introduced in the second half of the 19th century, first in the Department of Theology and then of Law (1862-72). From 1867 the struggle for the language and character of the university began between Ukrainians and Poles. In 1871 all restrictions in teaching in either Ukrainian or Polish were abolished and it was ordered that only people with the command of either of the two languages could occupy university chairs. In 1879 Polish became the administrative language at the university, and the appointment of Ukrainians to docent positions was obstructed. In 1894 the Chair of Ukrainian History was established and given to Mykhailo Hrushevsky. In 1900 a separate Chair of Ukrainian Literature was added...

Lviv University



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KHARKIV UNIVERSITY. The first university in Russian-ruled Ukrainian territory. It was founded in 1805 on the initiative of Vasyl Karazyn, and with the financial support of the local nobility, burghers, and the municipal council. The university enjoyed a broad autonomy: its highest governing body was the Professorial Council, which elected the rector and all the professors. During the first decade the faculty consisted mostly of foreign scholars, the majority of whom were German. During the 19th century the university consisted of four faculties: physics-mathematics, history-philology, law, and medicine. The first periodicals in eastern Ukraine, including Ukrainskii vestnik (1816-19), and Ukrainskii zhurnal (1824-5), were published by cultural circles closely connected with the university. In the 1830s a number of professors and students of Kharkiv University formed a literary group known as the Kharkiv Romantic School. Until 1832 the university oversaw the whole educational system in Slobidska Ukraine. In the first 30 years of its existence Kharkiv University was an important cultural force in Ukraine. It introduced Western ideas and trends and recognized the cultural significance of Ukrainian folklore. Its cultural role declined as the university's autonomy was abolished. In 1835 a new charter strengthened the power of the centralized bureaucracy. A government-approved curator and rector were put in charge of the university. By 1848 all publications and even lectures were subjected to censorship. Scholars were prohibited from traveling abroad...

Kharkiv University



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KYIV UNIVERSITY. Opened in 1834, it was the second university (after Kharkiv University) to be established in Russian-ruled Ukraine. Several requests from the local nobility for a university in Kyiv, dating back to 1765, were turned down by the imperial government, which until 1831 accepted the dominance of Polish culture in Right-Bank Ukraine and in 1803 even had established a Polish school system there. The Polish Insurrection of 1830-1 convinced Nicholas I that Right-Bank Ukraine had to be Russified, and to accomplish this the existing school system had to be replaced with a Russian one supervised from Kyiv. Thus, Kyiv University was established to oversee the new educational system. The university was named after Saint Vladimir (Volodymyr the Great) and consisted, initially, of only one faculty--the philosophy faculty--which was subdivided into two departments--history and philology, and physics and mathematics. The university's autonomy was restricted: professors and faculty dean selected by the Professorial Council had to be approved by the minister of education, the elected rector had to be approved by the tsar, and the appointed curator of the school district kept a close watch over university affairs. The first rector was a Ukrainian scholar, Mykhailo Maksymovych, but most of the professors were Poles. Until the 1860s Poles from the Right-Bank Ukraine formed a majority of the student body, followed by Ukrainians from Left-Bank Ukraine. Although the university was intended to be an instrument of Russification, it became a center of revolutionary activity and national awakening...

Kyiv University



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ODESA UNIVERSITY. It was opened in 1865 as New Russia University on the basis of the Richelieu Lyceum, on the initiative of Nikolai Pirogov, the head of the Odesa school district. The tsarist officials initially opposed the founding of a university in Odesa, since they considered the city to be a hotbed of unrest, and offered instead Mykolaiv as a site. Under pressure from the local nobility and merchants, Tsar Alexander II granted the lyceum university status on 10 June 1862. New Russia University initially had three faculties, history and philology, physics and mathematics, and law. The initial enrollment was 175 students; by 1880 there were 346 students and 45 professors. Almost half of the students were children of the clergy; 70 percent of the students received either scholarships or bursaries. Most of the students came from Southern Ukraine, the Don region, or Caucasia, although the school also attracted students from the Slavic countries in the Balkans. All instruction was in Russian, although in 1906 there was an attempt to initiate a Ukrainian history course to be offered in Ukrainian by Oleksander Hrushevsky. During the Ukrainian struggle for independence (1917-20) attempts were made to Ukrainianize the university. Under Soviet rule New Russia University was dissolved, and the various faculties were separated from the university to form research institutes in 1920. Later that year most of these institutes were combined to form the Odesa Institute of People's Education. In 1933 several other institutes were merged again, to form Odesa University...

Odesa University



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CHERNIVTSI UNIVERSITY. The university was founded in 1875, succeeding the Chernivtsi Higher Theological School, which had existed since 1827. Until 1918 it was known as Franz-Josefs Universitat, with German as the language of instruction and separate departments of Ukrainian and Romanian language and literature. From 1919 to 1940 it was the Universitatea Regele Carol i din Cernauti, with instruction in Romanian, and in 1940 it became the Chernivtsi State University, with instruction in Ukrainian. Public efforts to rename the university in honor of Yurii Fedkovych, led by the literary scholar Yevhen Kyryliuk, for many years did not gain the consent of the Soviet authorities, but in 1989 Fedkovych finally became the university's patron. During the Austrian period Chernivtsi University had three faculties: Orthodox theology, law, and philosophy. The department of Ukrainian language and literature was in the faculty of philosophy. In this period the university was attended not only by Bukovynians, but also by many Galician students, among whom were Ivan Franko and Les Martovych. Ukrainian students constituted, on the average, about 20-25 percent of students enrolled. There were about as many Romanians, with the majority of students being Jewish or German. In 1918-40 Chernivtsi University was Romanianized: the Ukrainian departments were dissolved, and the Ukrainian professors dismissed. In 1940 northern Bukovyna was annexed to the Ukrainian SSR, and Ukrainian became the language of instruction at Chernivtsi University...

Chernivtsi University



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Go To Top Of Page  X. THE FOUNDERS OF MODERN UKRAINIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY IN THE 19TH CENTURY

The founders of modern Ukrainian historiography in the first half of the 19th century, in essence, continued the autonomist traditions of history writing established by the elite of the Cossack Hetman state. Such historians as Dmytro Bantysh-Kamensky and Mykola Markevych's wrote general systematic surveys of the history of Ukraine from ancient times to the end of the 18th century that concentrated on the Cossack-Hetman period. Under the influence of Romanticism, later Ukrainian historians focused their attention on the history and life of the common people. This infatuation with the folk (narodnist) eventually developed into an identification with the socially and economically downtrodden masses and had a profound influence on the evolution of the sense of modern Ukrainian identity. Studied at first as an object of history, the 'people' was eventually viewed as the principal agent of historical development. With some exceptions, Ukrainian historiography of the middle and second half of the 19th century is dominated by the populist school, whose influence extended into the early decades of the 20th century. It found its most vivid expression in the works of Mykhailo Maksymovych, Mykola Kostomarov, Panteleimon Kulish, Oleksander Lazarevsky, and Volodymyr Antonovych... Learn more about the founder of modern Ukrainian historiography by visiting the following entries:




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MARKEVYCH, MYKOLA, b 7 February 1804 in Dunaiets, Chernihiv gubernia, d 21 June 1860 in Turivka, Poltava gubernia. Historian, ethnographer, poet, musician, and composer. He studied in Saint Petersburg at the boarding school of the Pedagogical Institute (1817-20) and later studied piano and composition in Moscow. Markevych was close to the literary circles of the Decembrist movement. From 1830 he lived on his estate in Turivka and collected materials on the history of Ukraine and Ukrainian folklore and folk songs. The then unpublished Istoriia Rusov had a significant impact on Markevych's major work, the five-volume Istoriia Malorossii (History of Little Russia), published in Moscow in 1842-3. In his monograph Markevych approached the history of Ukraine as an independent, uninterrupted process from earliest times to the late 18th century. Markevych's history greatly influenced 19th-century Ukrainian historiography and his Romantic contemporaries, particularly his friend Taras Shevchenko...

Mykola Markevych



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MAKSYMOVYCH, MYKHAILO, b 15 September 1804 at the Tymkivshchyna estate, Poltava gubernia, d 22 November 1873 at the Mykhailova Hora estate, Poltava gubernia. Historian, philologist, ethnographer, botanist, and poet. In 1832 he concluded his studies at Moscow University, and remained at the university for further academic work. In 1834 he was appointed professor of Russian folk literature at Kyiv University, and that year he became the university's first rector, a post he held until 1835. Maksymovych's learning was of encyclopedic dimensions and covered an unusually wide range, from botany to history. As a historian, Maksymovych adhered to the then-popular ideas of Romanticism and identification with the peasant ethnos. He defended the theory of the organic link between the Princely era of Kyivan Rus' and Cossack era in Ukrainian history, to which he devoted much research and many articles, critical notes on sources, and other writings. His research was very significant for the development of Ukrainian historiography...

Mykhailo Maksymovych



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KOSTOMAROV, MYKOLA, b 16 May 1817 in Yurasivka, Voronezh region, d 19 April 1885 in Saint Petersburg. Historian, publicist, and writer. He graduated from Kharkiv University in 1837. In 1846 he was appointed assistant professor at Kyiv University. That year, along with Vasyl Bilozersky, Panteleimon Kulish, Mykola Hulak, Taras Shevchenko, and others, he formed the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood. In 1847 he was arrested along with all the other members of the society and sentenced to one year's imprisonment, followed by exile. Kostomarov wrote a number of fundamental works on the history of Ukraine in the 16th-18th centuries. He was the founder of the populist trend in Ukrainian historiography. In his historicophilosophical studies as well as in his historical monographs, Kostomarov argued for the national distinctiveness of the Ukrainian people and the uniqueness of their historial development, which, unlike for the Poles and Russians, was manifested in the Ukrainian freedom-loving, democratic, and individualistic spirit...

Mykola Kostomarov



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KULISH, PANTELEIMON, b 8 August 1819 in Voronizh, Chernihiv gubernia, d 14 February 1897 in Motronivka, Chernihiv gubernia. In 1843-5 Kulish taught in Kyiv and studied Ukrainian history and ethnography. There he befriended Taras Shevchenko, Mykola Kostomarov, and Vasyl Bilozersky; their circle later became the nucleus of the secret Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood. In 1847 he was arrested by the tsarist police for belonging to the Brotherhood, imprisoned and then exiled. Because his main offence had been writing a 'Tale of the Ukrainian People,' Kulish was forbidden to write. In 1856 he established a Ukrainian printing press in Saint Petersburg and issued two splendid volumes of Zapiski o Iuzhnoi Rusi (Notes on Southern Rus'), a rich collection of Ukrainian folklore, ethnography, and literature in which he introduced a new orthography. Much of his time he devoted to the study of Ukrainian history, particularly of the Cossack period. His earlier romantic view of the Cossacks gave way to a new and very critical appraisal of them...

Panteleimon Kulish



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LAZAREVSKY, OLEKSANDER, b 20 June 1834 in Hyrivka, Chernihiv gubernia, d 13 April 1902 in Pidlypne, Chernihiv gubernia. Historian. He graduated in 1858 from Saint Petersburg University. In the mid-1860s he researched the socioeconomic and cultural history of Left-Bank Ukraine during the 17th and 18th centuries. He wrote a fundamental study of the peasantry and articles about the Cossack starshyna and nobility. He made an outstanding contribution to the history of colonization, administration, and land tenure in Opisanie Staroi Malorossii (A Description of Old Little Russia, 3 vols). Lazarevsky's approach to history was based on his populist ideas. He emphasized the exploitation of peasants by the Cossack starshyna and regarded the Hetman state and its leading figures with disapproval. But he treated fairly those Ukrainian nobles who made a contribution to Ukrainian culture. He paid little attention to the disastrous influence of Russian policy in Ukraine, but Ukrainian historians noted the one-sidedness without denying his enormous contribution...

Oleksander Lazarevsky



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ANTONOVYCH, VOLODYMYR, b 18 January 1834 in Makhnivka, Kyiv gubernia, d 21 March 1908 in Kyiv. Historian, archeographer, archeologist, professor of history at Kyiv University from 1878, editor in chief of the publications of the Kyiv Archeographic Commission, patron and head (from 1881) of the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler in Kyiv, and head of the Hromada of Kyiv. Antonovych was a major representative of the populist school in Ukrainian historiography. He founded the so-called Kyivan school of historians, which consisted of his students at Kyiv University (among them Mykhailo Hrushevsky), who later laid the foundations of modern Ukrainian historiography. In his writings Antonovych avoided synthetic theories and concentrated on documentary research. Only in his more popular lectures did Antonovych give a general survey of Ukrainian history from the origin of the Cossacks. For almost half a century Antonovych played a leading role in Ukrainian civic and political life. He wrote over 300 scholarly studies...

Volodymyr Antonovych



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Go To Top Of Page  XI. THE HROMADA MOVEMENT AND THE GROWTH OF UKRAINIAN NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS

The hromada movement, which originated in the Russian Empire in the late 1850s, played a decisive role in the Ukrainian national revival and the development of Ukrainian national consciousness. Because of police persecution and the mobility of their members, most hromadas existed for only a few years. Members differed in political conviction; what united them was a love for the Ukrainian language and traditions and the desire to serve the people. The general aims of the hromadas were to instill through self-education a sense of national identity in their members and to improve through popular education the living standard of the peasant masses. Members were encouraged to use Ukrainian and to study Ukrainian history, folklore, and language. Each hromada maintained a small library of illegal books and journals from abroad for the use of its members. The larger hromadas organized drama groups and choirs, and staged Ukrainian plays and concerts for the public. The hromadas were active in the Sunday-school movement: they financed and staffed schools and prepared textbooks. Avoiding contacts with revolutionary circles, the hromadas regarded their own activities as strictly cultural and educational. However, in the 1880s, under pressure from younger members, these societies gradually became involved in some political activity as well... Learn more about the hromada movement and its legacy by visiting the following entries:



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HROMADAS. Clandestine societies of Ukrainian intelligentsia that in the second half of the 19th century were the principal agents for the growth of Ukrainian national consciousness within the Russian Empire. The first hromada, established in Saint Petersburg, was already active by the fall of 1858. It consisted of some former members of the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, including Mykola Kostomarov, Panteleimon Kulish, and Taras Shevchenko. With financial support from the landowners Vasyl Tarnovsky and Hryhorii Galagan, works of Ukrainian writers began to be published and the journal Osnova appeared. Another hromada outside Ukraine sprang up at the University of Moscow in 1858-9. In Ukraine the most important hromada, the Hromada of Kyiv, was organized in 1859 by students who were active in the Sunday-school movement. In Kharkiv a student circle that collected ethnographic material formed around Oleksander Potebnia at the end of the 1850s, but the first hromada arose probably in 1861-2...

Hromadas



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HROMADA OF KYIV. The most active and enduring hromada in Russian-ruled Ukraine. It was not only the chief cultural, and to some extent political, society of Ukrainian intelligentsia in Kyiv but also, through its contacts with similar societies in other cities, the most important catalyst of the Ukrainian national revival of the second half of the 19th century. Founded in 1859 mostly by students who felt morally obligated to improve the condition of the people through education, the hromada initially focused on teaching at Sunday schools. In the early 1860s a khlopoman group lead by Volodymyr Antonovych joined the hromada. In 1862, at the height of its activity, the hromada's membership reached 200, and included representatives from various social strata and from different nationalities--Jews and Poles as well as Ukrainians. Under the close surveillance of the authorities, the hromada reduced its activities and limited itself to cultural, apolitical goals, devoting much attention to publishing a journal, Kievskaia starina, devoted to Ukrainian studies...

Hromada of Kyiv



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KHLOPOMAN. Adherent of a populist movement of Ukrainian students and intelligentsia in Right-Bank Ukraine in the 1850s-1860s. The derogatory Polish term 'chlopoman,' meaning lover of the peasantry, was adopted eventually by those who propagated the notion of 'love for the simple Ukrainian people.' The movement, which was greatly influenced by French socialists (P-J. Proudhon, L-A. Blanqui) and democratic populism, originated among students of Kyiv University who belonged to the Polonized nobility. Recognizing the duty to serve 'the people among whom one lives,' they turned away from Polish student organizations and established a Ukrainian society. The khlopoman movement also had an impact on young people in Left-Bank Ukraine, particularly in Kharkiv, Poltava, Chernihiv, and Odesa. The movement's founders included Volodymyr Antonovych, Tadei Rylsky, Borys Poznansky, Pavlo Zhytetsky, and Pavlo Chubynsky...

Khlopoman



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ANTONOVYCH, VOLODYMYR, b 18 January 1834 in Makhnivka, Kyiv gubernia, d 21 March 1908 in Kyiv. Historian, archeographer, archeologist, professor of history at Kyiv University from 1878, editor in chief of the publications of the Kyiv Archeographic Commission, patron and head (from 1881) of the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler in Kyiv. As a member of the Khlopoman movement, Antonovych published a reply to the Polish journalist Z. Fisz (pseud T. Padalica), entitled 'Moia ispoved' (My Confession), in Osnova (Saint Petersburg), 1 (1862), in which he defended the ideology of the 'peasant lovers.' He was head of the Old Hromada of Kyiv. Through his initiative the Poles and Ukrainians in the Galician Diet reached an agreement in 1890. He played an important role in Mykhailo Hrushevsky's move to Lviv and the city's emergence as an important center of Ukrainian learning and publishing. For almost half a century Antonovych played a leading role in Ukrainian civic and political life...

Volodymyr Antonovych



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KIEVSKAIA STARINA. A learned monthly for Ukrainian studies printed in Russian and published in Kyiv from 1882 to 1906. In 1907 it was renamed Ukraina and appeared in Ukrainian. The journal was founded by Teofan Lebedyntsev, Volodymyr Antonovych, Oleksander Lazarevsky, and Pavlo Zhytetsky, and was financed mostly by Vasyl Symyrenko. It was the unofficial organ of the Hromada of Kyiv, which in 1893 became its real owner. For over 25 years Kievskaia starina was the only printed medium of Ukrainian scholarship in Russian-ruled Ukraine. It published a wealth of research and documentary materials in history, archeology, ethnography, philology, and bibliography. In 1890 it began to publish belles-lettres, which from 1897 appeared in Ukrainian. The leading Ukrainian scientific minds and cultural figures of the time were grouped around the journal, forming something like a learned society. At the turn of the century Kievskia starina became a sort of encyclopedia of Ukrainian studies...

Kievskaia starina



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Go To Top Of Page  XII. MYKHAILO DRAHOMANOV AND THE FIRST UKRAINIAN POLITICAL PROGRAM

The 'Introduction' to the first issue of the journal Hromada (Community), published in Geneva in 1878, constituted a turning point in the development of modern Ukrainian political thought; it may be regarded as the first Ukrainian political program. Its author, Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841-1895), was one of the leading Ukrainian intellectuals of his time and even today remains, arguably, the most prominent political thinker in Ukrainian history. Drahomanov's ideas represent a blend of liberal-democratic, socialist, and Ukrainian patriotic elements, with a positivist philosophical background. Influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Drahomanov envisaged the final goal of humanity's progress as a future condition of anarchy: a voluntary association of free and equal individuals, with the elimination of authoritarian features in social life. He assumed that this ideal could be achieved through federalism and the self-government of communities and regions. Drahomanov insisted on the priority of civil rights and free political institutions over economic class interests and of universal human values over exclusive national concerns. However, he believed that nationality was a necessary building stone of all mankind, and he coined the slogan 'Cosmopolitanism in the ideas and the ends, nationality in the ground and the forms.' He declared himself a socialist, without subscribing to any school of contemporary socialist thought. Drahomanov was convinced that in agrarian Ukraine socialism must be oriented towards the peasantry. He continued the democratic-federalist tradition as represented by the Ukrainian Decembrist movement of the 1820s (in which his uncle, Yakiv Drahomanov, took part) and the Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood. He wished to link the Ukrainian movement with progressive trends in the contemporary Western world. His theories had a profound influence on the next generation of Ukrainian political thinkers, including Ivan Franko and Mykhailo Pavlyk... Learn more about Mykhailo Drahomanov and his influential political ideas by visiting the following entries:




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DRAHOMANOV, MYKHAILO, b 6 September 1841 in Hadiach, Poltava gubernia, d 20 July 1895 in Sofia, Bulgaria. Scholar, civic leader, publicist, political thinker. Born into a gentry family of Cossack origin, Drahomanov studied at Kyiv University, where in 1864 he became privat docent, and in 1873, docent, lecturing on ancient history. While pursuing an academic career, Drahomanov rose to a position of leadership in the Ukrainian secret society the Hromada of Kyiv. During his trips abroad Drahomanov established contacts with Galician Ukrainians; under his influence the Russophile Academic Circle in Lviv adopted a Ukrainian democratic platform in 1875-6. Drahomanov became an early victim of anti-Ukrainian repressive measures by the Russian government and was dismissed in 1875 from the Kyiv University. Entrusted by the Hromada with the mission to become its spokesman in Western Europe, he settled in Geneva in 1876. Aided by Antin Liakhotsky (Kuzma), he published the journal Hromada (Geneva) (5 vols, 1878-82), the first modern Ukrainian political journal. With Serhii Podolynsky and Mykhailo Pavlyk, who for some time joined him in Switzerland, Drahomanov formed the Geneva Circle, an embryo of Ukrainian socialism...

Mykhailo Drahomanov



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SOCIALISM. A political movement calling for collective ownership of the means of production or an egalitarian distribution of wealth. Socialist ideas first appeared in Ukrainian territory in the 1830s and 1840s, but they were limited to the most radical factions of the Polish conspiratorial movement; a Ukrainian socialist movement as such did not emerge until the 1870s. The most influential Ukrainian socialist thinker was Mykhailo Drahomanov, who adapted Western European socialist theories to the particular situation of the Ukrainian nation; his peasant-oriented, decentralist brand of socialism eventually came to be known as radicalism. Other Ukrainian socialist theorists of the 1870s were Drahomanov's close associates Mykola Ziber, an interpreter and proponent of Marxism, and Serhii Podolynsky, who was influenced by Drahomanov's radicalism, Marxism, and Russian populism. Under the influence of Drahomanov, Ziber, and Podolynsky and also under the influence of Polish socialists Ukrainian university students in Vienna and Lviv were converted to socialism, including Ivan Franko, Mykhailo Pavlyk, and Ostap Terletsky. The first Ukrainian political party was a socialist party, the Ukrainian Radical party (est 1890 in Lviv)...

Socialism



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RADICALISM. In its most general sense radicalism is the striving for fundamental change. Usually the term has a narrower meaning in politics. In the context of Ukrainian history radicalism refers to a brand of agrarian socialism that emerged in Galicia in the late 19th century and survived there until the Second World War. The ideological inspiration for radicalism came from the political thinker Mykhailo Drahomanov and was embodied in the Ukrainian Radical party (est 1890) in Galicia. Before the party was founded, 'radicals' generally had referred to themselves as 'socialists' or 'progressives.' However, the party leadership, particularly Mykhailo Pavlyk and Ivan Franko, wanted to distinguish their party, its program, and its name from those of the social democrats. They argued that Marxism was suitable for Western European socialists, whose countries had an industrial proletariat. The Ukrainians, however, were a predominantly peasant people, and Drahomanov's political theories suited them much more than Karl Marx's. Radicalism was pre-eminently a Galician phenomenon, but it had resonances elsewhere in Ukraine...

Radicalism



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PODOLYNSKY, SERHII, b 31 July 1850 in Yaroslavka, Zvenyhorod county, Kyiv gubernia, d 12 July 1891 in Kyiv. Socialist theoretician and activist, and physician. Podolynsky studied science and medicine in Kyiv, Paris, Zurich, and Breslau (now Wroclaw). He worked as a physician in Ukraine in the mid-1870s, but in 1878 he settled in Montpellier, France, where he continued to practice medicine and also lectured at the famous Montpellier medical school. In the early 1870s he became involved with the Hromada of Kyiv, particularly with its most radical members, the socialist Mykhailo Drahomanov and Mykola Ziber. To the end of his active life Podolynsky combined a revolutionary socialist perspective with devotion to the Ukrainian nation. Podolynsky co-operated closely with Mykhailo Drahomanov and his journal Hromada (Geneva), of which he formally became coeditor in 1881. He was also involved in the international socialist movement, contributed to German-, Italian-, and especially French-language socialist journals. He made an important contribution to theory in his article 'Socialism, or Human Labor and the Unity of Physical Forces,' which was published in several versions and four languages in 1880-3...

Serhii Podolynsky



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FRANKO, IVAN, b 27 August 1856 in Nahuievychi (today Ivan Franko), Drohobych county, Galicia, d 28 May 1916 in Lviv. Writer, scholar, political and civic leader, publicist; like Taras Shevchenko, one of Ukraine's greatest creative geniuses. His first literary works were published in the students' magazine Druh, whose editorial board he joined in 1875. Franko's political and publishing activities and his correspondence with Mykhailo Drahomanov attracted the attention of the police, and in 1877 he was arrested along with Mykhailo Pavlyk, Ostap Terletsky, and others for spreading socialist propaganda. In 1878 he founded with Pavlyk, the magazine Hromads'kyi druh, which was confiscated by the authorities but resumed publication under the names Dzvin and Molot. Franko first became politically active in a circle of Russophile secondary school students. Soon after he left it and joined the populist camp. As a student he was a fervent advocate of socialism and studied Marx and Engels, but later he attacked it vehemently. In general, Franko evolved in his thinking from a proponent of radicalism to a progressive national democrat...

Ivan Franko



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PAVLYK, MYKHAILO, b 17 September 1853 in Monastyrske (now part of Kosiv), Kolomyia circle, Galicia, d 26 January 1915 in Lviv. Galician socialist figure and publicist; full member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society from 1900. He and Ivan Franko became close friends as students at Lviv University. Both of them contributed to the Academic Circle's organ, Druh (1874-7), and both became Ukrainophile socialists under the influence of Mykhailo Drahomanov's letters to Druh and the Polish-language newspaper Praca. Through his writings Pavlyk remained the principal Galician propagator of Drahomanov's ideas, which brought about his persecution (he was tried in court nearly 30 times), imprisonment (in 1877, 1878, 1882, 1885-6, and 1889), and ostracism. With Franko he edited (1878) the socialist journal Hromads'kyi druh and miscellanies Dzvin and Molot, all of which outraged the conservative Galician public and were confiscated by the police. In 1879 he avoided a six-month prison term, which he received for writing 'Rebenshchukova Tetiana,' by fleeing to Geneva, where he worked with Drahomanov and Serhii Podolynsky on the journal Hromada. In 1882 he returned to Lviv and served his sentence...

Mykhailo Pavlyk



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Go To Top Of Page  XIII. THE CLANDESTINE BROTHERHOOD OF TARAS AND ITS PROTO-NATIONALIST PROGRAM

In the 1890s the younger generation of Ukrainian activists began to view the Ukrainophile hromada movement in Russian-ruled Ukraine, that focused exclusively on cultural and educational activities and avoided any contacts with revolutionary circles, as insufficient, ineffectual, and outdated. A reflection of the political activism of the new generation was the appearance of illegal Ukrainian political organizations and parties, the first of which was the Brotherhood of Taras (1891-8). It was followed by the General Ukrainian Non-Party Democratic Organization (1897-1904) and the Revolutionary Ukrainian party (1900-5). The ideological principles of the brotherhood were formulated by Ivan Lypa and were published anonymously in a revised form as 'Profession de foi' in the journal Pravda (April 1893). Among the brotherhood's members were prominent writers Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky and Borys Hrinchenko as well as Mykola Mikhnovsky who later became the leading ideologue of Ukrainian nationalism. Besides promoting cultural goals, the brotherhood raised far-reaching political demands--the liberation of the Ukrainian nation from Russian domination, full autonomy for all the peoples of the Russian Empire, and social justice. The Brotherhood was active until 1898. Through its influence the Hromada of Kyiv transformed itself in 1897 into the more political General Ukrainian Non-Party Democratic Organization, and the younger generation organized the Revolutionary Ukrainian party in 1900, that initially based its politics on a speech delivered by Mikhnovsky and published under the title Samostiina Ukraina (Independent Ukraine)... Learn more about the Brotherhood of Taras and its followers by visiting the following entries:




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BROTHERHOOD OF TARAS. Secret organization of young nationally conscious Ukrainians established in 1891 (according to some, in 1892) when a group of students and civic leaders from Kharkiv and Kyiv visited the grave of Taras Shevchenko near Kaniv. Among the brotherhood's founders were V. Borovyk, Borys Hrinchenko, Ivan Lypa, and Mykola Mikhnovsky. Kharkiv was the brotherhood's center of activity until its members were arrested in the summer of 1893. Then Kyiv became the center, with chapters in Odesa, Poltava, Lubny, and Pryluky. The brotherhood included such people as Valeriian Borzhkovsky, Musii Kononenko, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Volodymyr Samiilenko, Oleksander Cherniakhivsky, Volodymyr Shemet, Yevhen Tymchenko, and Viktor Andriievsky. The society's ideological principles, formulated by Lypa, were propagated by P. Vartovy (Hrinchenko) in Lysty z Ukrainy Naddniprians'koï (Letters from Dnieper Ukraine), by Kotsiubynsky in the fable 'Kho,' and by Samiilenko in satires on the Little Russian mentality and Ukrainophilism...

Brotherhood of Taras



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LYPA, IVAN, b 24 February 1865 in Kerch, Tavriia gubernia, d 13 November 1923 in Vynnyky, Lviv county, Galicia. Civic and political figure, writer, and physician. As a student at Kharkiv University he helped found the Brotherhood of Taras, formulated its ideological principles (published anonymously as 'Profession de foi' in the journal Pravda), and was imprisoned for over a year for his activity in it. After completing his studies at Kazan University he practiced medicine in the Kherson region, Poltava, and then Odesa, where he published the Ukrainian paper Narodnyi stiah and founded several Ukrainian organizations. During the Ukrainian struggle for independence he was elected Ukrainian commissioner of Odesa and sat on the Central Committee of the Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Independentists. Under the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic he served as minister of religious affairs. After emigrating to Poland in 1921, he chaired the Council of the Republic and became minister of health in the Government-in-exile of the Ukrainian National Republic...

Ivan Lypa



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MIKHNOVSKY, MYKOLA, b 1873 in Turivka, Pryluky county, Poltava gubernia, d 3 March 1924 in Kyiv. Political and community activist, publicist and lawyer, and ideologue of Ukrainian nationalism. He studied law at Kyiv University and during his student years was one of the initiators (1891) of the Brotherhood of Taras. His speech at the Taras Shevchenko anniversary celebrations in Poltava and Kharkiv in 1900, printed in Lviv as Samostiina Ukraina (Independent Ukraine), became the program of the Revolutionary Ukrainian party in its early period. When most of RUP's membership abandoned an independentist platform, he left it to assist in organizing the Ukrainian People's party (founded in 1902) and wrote the 'Ten Commandments' and the 'Program' to underscore its commitment to full Ukrainian statehood. During the Ukrainian struggle for independence Mikhnovsky was in Kyiv propagating the idea of Ukrainian independence and the formation of a national army. In 1924 incessant persecution by the Soviet authorities led him to suicide...

Mykola Mikhnovsky



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HRINCHENKO, BORYS, b 9 December 1863 at Vilkhovyi Yar khutir in Kharkiv county, d 6 May 1910 in Ospedaletti, Italy. Prominent public figure, educator, writer, folklorist, and linguist. For 10 years he taught in elementary schools in Kharkiv and Katerynoslav gubernias. He made an effort to teach children their native language and wrote some of the first Ukrainian-language school textbooks. He was one of the founders of the Brotherhood of Taras in 1891. In 1894, he organized there the largest publishing house in Russian-ruled Ukraine, which published 50 popular-educational books despite severe censorship. In 1902 he moved to Kyiv, where the Hromada of Kyiv entrusted him with the task of compiling a dictionary of the Ukrainian language, which he fulfiled by editing 68,000-word, four-volume dictionary in 1907-9. He founded and was first president of the Kyiv Prosvita society. In 1904 he was a cofounder of both the Ukrainian Radical party (Kyiv) and the Ukrainian Democratic party, which merged in 1905 to form the Ukrainian Democratic Radical party...

Borys Hrinchenko



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GENERAL UKRAINIAN NON-PARTY DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION. A clandestine cultural organization founded in Kyiv in the fall of 1897 on the initiative of Oleksander Konysky and Volodymyr Antonovych. Many of its first members also belonged to a hromada or the Brotherhood of Taras. With about 150 members in 1901, it was enlarged and reorganized into an association of 3-10-member autonomous groups that held periodic congresses every three years to elect the executive. Most of its energy was devoted to publishing: it maintained the Vik publishing house and the Kyivskaia Starina bookstore. It also encouraged the student, zemstvo, and co-operative movement, helped persecuted Ukrainian activists, and agitated for the use of the Ukrainian language in the schools. In 1904 the organization adopted a full political program and changed its name to the Ukrainian Democratic party, demanding national autonomy for Ukrainians and other nationalities within a federated Russia and radical economic and social reforms...

Ukrainian General Organization



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REVOLUTIONARY UKRAINIAN PARTY (RUP). The first mass Ukrainian revolutionary party in Russian-ruled Ukraine, established on 11 February 1900. The first RUP members were nationally conscious students at various schools in Ukraine and elsewhere in the Russian Empire. Initially RUP based its politics on a speech 'Samostiina Ukraina' delivered in 1900 by a sympathizer, Mykola Mikhnovsky, who called for 'a single, unitary, indivisible, free, independent Ukraine from the Carpathians to the Caucasus.' In 1903 RUP repudiated the radical nationalism of 'Samostiina Ukraina' and adopted the principles, goals, and tactics of international social democracy. For practical reasons the call for an independent Ukraine was replaced by one for Ukraine's full national-territorial autonomy within a federated, democratic Russia. In 1904, RUP shifted its focus away from the peasantry to the ethnic Ukrainian urban proletariat, adopted organizational principles of 'democratic centralism' and expanded its influence to Right-Bank Ukraine and Southern Ukraine and the Kuban...

Revolutionary Ukrainian party



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about the Brotherhood of Taras and its proto-nationalist program were made possible by the financial support of NADIA KAZYMYRA of Ottawa, ON, Canada.



Go To Top Of Page  XIV. UKRAINIAN POPULIST-ETHNOGRAPHIC THEATER IN RUSSIAN-RULED UKRAINE

The many amateur theatre groups and touring theaters, active in Russian-ruled Ukraine by the end of the 1850s, played an important role in the Ukrainian national revival. In Kyiv the leader in setting up amateur troupes was Mykhailo Starytsky, and in rural areas of southern Ukraine, Ivan Karpenko-Kary. Although the 1863 tsarist government circular issued by Petr Valuev limited the use of the Ukrainian language on stage, the development of Ukrainian amateur theater continued until 1876, when the Ems Ukase completely prohibited Ukrainian performances in Russian-ruled Ukraine. In 1881, in spite of heavy censorship, the first touring theater in eastern Ukraine was founded, under Marko Kropyvnytsky. Touring theaters led by Starytsky (1885), Mykola Sadovsky (1888), and Panas Saksahansky (1890) followed. Their repertoire consisted mostly of populist-romantic and realistic plays by Kropyvnytsky, Starytsky, and Karpenko-Kary. Censorship did not permit performances of plays with historical and social themes and completely prohibited the staging of plays translated from other languages. Each performance had to include at least one Russian play and the troupe was required to secure a local governor's permission for each staging of a Ukrainian-language play. After the failed Revolution of 1905 censorship eased, and Mykola Sadovsky was able to organize the first resident Ukrainian theater in Kyiv in 1907. He successfully produced Ukrainian operas as well as melodramas and comedies of manners in translation. In the 1910s, the populist-ethnographic theater gave way to the realistic-psychological style of acting... Learn more about the Ukrainian populist-ethnographic theater in Russian-ruled Ukraine by visiting the following entries:



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KROPYVNYTSKY, MARKO, b 22 May 1840 in Bezhbairaky, Yelysavethrad county, Kherson gubernia, d 21 April 1910 en route from Mykolaiv to Kharkiv, buried in Kharkiv. Renowned actor, stage director, playwright, and composer; a founder and director of the first professional Ukrainian theater in Russian-ruled Ukraine. Working as a petty official of the county court or the municipal government in Bobrynets and Yelysavethrad, for ten years he was active as an actor and play director in amateur theater groups with Ivan Tobilevych (Ivan Karpenko-Kary). In 1871 he moved to Odesa and joined the professional theater of Russian popular drama, where he played mostly the roles of Ukrainian characters. In 1882 Kropyvnytsky organized his own touring theater troupe in Yelysavethrad. As the first Ukrainian professional troupe, it marks the beginning of a new period in the history of the Ukrainian theater. Drawing on the talent of such actors as Mariia Zankovetska and Mykola Sadovsky, the troupe toured Ukraine and some Russian cities with a populist-realist repertoire, and was acclaimed highly by both Ukrainian and Russian critics...

Marko Kropyvnytsky



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KARPENKO-KARY, IVAN (pen name of Ivan Tobilevych), b 29 September 1845 in Arsenivka, Bobrynets county, Kherson gubernia, d 15 September 1907 in Berlin. Famous Ukrainian actor and playwright; the brother of the theater figures Panas Saksahansky, Mykola Sadovsky, and Mariia Sadovska-Barilotti. In 1863 he met Marko Kropyvnytsky and with him became involved in producing amateur theater in Yelysavethrad. In 1884 he was exiled to Novocherkassk for his involvement with Ukrainian revolutionaries; returning to Ukraine in 1886, he lived under police surveillance until 1889. From 1887 until his illness in 1904 he lived on his farmstead, wrote, and worked as a stage actor and director, mostly in the traveling troupe of his brother Panas Saksahansky. He was acclaimed for his principal dramatic and comic roles in many Ukrainian plays, some of them his own. Karpenko-Kary was renowned as a playwright. Altogether he wrote 18 frequently produced plays: satiric comedies, eg Martyn Borulia (1886), dramas, eg. Naimychka (The Servant Girl, 1885), and historical ethnographic plays, eg. Sava Chalyi (1899)...

Ivan Karpenko-Kary



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SADOVSKY, MYKOLA (real surname: Tobilevych), b 13 December 1856 in Kamiano-Kostuvate, Yelysavethrad county, Kherson gubernia, d 7 February 1933 in Kyiv. Theater director, actor, and singer; brother of Ivan Karpenko-Kary, Mariia Sadovska-Barilotti, and Panas Saksahansky. In 1881 he began his theatrical career in Hryhorii Ashkarenko's, Marko Kropyvnytsky's, and Mykhailo Starytsky's troupes. From 1888 he led his own troupe, which in 1898 joined Saksahansky's Troupe. Sadovsky was the artistic director of the Ukrainska Besida Theater (1905-6) and then organized the first resident Ukrainian theater in Kyiv, which was active until 1919. Acclaimed by Mykhailo Starytsky as the most talented of the Tobilevych family, Sadovsky was an actor of the realistic-psychological school, whose best roles were profound interpretations of the heroes in historical and social dramas, such as Starytsky's Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi, Ivan Karpenko-Kary's Sava Chalyi, and Liudmyla Starytska-Cherniakhivska's Het'man Doroshenko. He was also a key force behind the flowering of Ukrainian operatic theater...

Mykola Sadovsky



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SAKSAHANSKY, PANAS (pseud of Panas Tobilevych), b 15 May 1859 in Kamiano-Kostuvate, Yelysavethrad county, Kherson gubernia, d 17 September 1940 in Kyiv. Theater director and actor; brother of Mykola Sadovsky, Ivan Karpenko-Kary, and Mariia Sadovska-Barilotti. After completing his education in Yelysavethrad (1880) he worked in Mykhailo Starytsky's (from 1883), Marko Kropyvnytsky's (1885), and Sadovsky's (1888) troupes; led his own Saksahansky's Troupe (1890-1909); worked in Trokhym Kolesnychenko's troupe (1910-15) and in the Society of Ukrainian Actors (1915-16); directed the People's Theater (1918-22); worked in the Zankovetska Theater (intermittently in 1922-6); and, from 1927, led a touring troupe with Sadovsky. Saksahansky was an actor of the realistic-psychological school, gifted in gesture and mimicry, whose most famous roles were in satirical comedies, such as Ivan Kotliarevsky's Natalka from Poltava. In Ukrainian translation he staged Schiller's Die Rauber, Karl Gutzkow's Uriel Acosta, and Shakespeare's Othello. He is the author of two plays and two books of memoirs...

Panas Saksahansky



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ZANKOVETSKA, MARIIA (nee Adasovska), b 4 August 1854 in Zanky now in Nizhyn raion, Chernihiv oblast, d 4 October 1934 in Kyiv. Actress, singer, and theater activist. Zankovetska was educated in a Chernihiv private school and at the Helsinki Conservatory. She debuted in 1882 in Ivan Kotliarevsky's Natalka from Poltava as a member of Marko Kropyvnytsky's troupe, which production heralded the rebirth of Ukrainian professional theater, heavily repressed since the Ems Ukase of 1876. Zankovetska performed as leading actress in the troupes of Kropyvnytsky, Mykhailo Starytsky, and Mykola Sadovsky, in Saksahansky's Troupe, in Onysym Suslov's troupe, in the Society of Ukrainian Actors, and in the State People's Theater. She appeared at the All-Russian Congress of Stage Workers in 1897, where she demanded the termination of censorship in Ukrainian theater. Zankovetska's stage career spanned over 30 dramatic-heroic roles from the populist-ethnographical repertoire, which she played with innate subtlety and intelligence. Her best performances were opposite Mykola Sadovsky, and her talent was praised by Konstantin Stanislavsky...

Mariia Zankovetska



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries featuring the Ukrainian populist-ethnographic theater in Russian-ruled Ukraine were made possible by the financial support from TEODOR BUTREJ's bequest to the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  XV. MYKOLA LYSENKO AND THE NATIONAL SCHOOL OF UKRAINIAN MUSIC

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries considerable efforts were made by composers, musicians, and music educators in Ukraine to develop a modern Ukrainian national school of music based on a Ukrainian cultural tradition and the originality of its folk music--a school comparable to those established among the Poles, Czechs, Russians, and Norwegians. The key figure in this process was a descendant of an aristocratic Cossack starshyna family, the composer Mykola Lysenko. Lysenko collected and arranged a large number of Ukrainian folk songs and studied them in order to establish their cultural specificity. By 1904 he was able to establish the Lysenko School of Music and Drama in Kyiv that served as a major center for the fostering of Ukrainian music and musicians. He also toured through Ukraine with choruses under his baton in order to spread the sound of Ukrainian music. His prolific and versatile life's work became the foundation for the further development and expansion of Ukrainian musical culture. Lysenko influenced a large group of Ukrainian composers in Russian-ruled Ukraine, including Kyrylo Stetsenko, Mykola Leontovych, Yakiv Stepovy, Oleksander Koshyts, Lev Revutsky, and Mykhailo Verykivsky. Lysenko's work also had a marked influence in Western Ukraine, where Ukrainian music activists had been free to establish printing houses for the publication of music, and the Boian music society had built an effective network throughout Galicia. In this milieu the Ukrainian national school of music attracted such composers as Filaret Kolessa, Ostap Nyzhankivsky, and later Stanyslav Liudkevych... Learn more about Mykola Lysenko and the national school of Ukrainian music by visiting the following entries:




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LYSENKO, MYKOLA, b 22 March 1842 in Hrynky, Kremenchuk county, Poltava gubernia, d 6 November 1912 in Kyiv. Composer, ethnomusicologist, conductor, pianist, teacher, and community figure. Lysenko acquired the rudiments of piano playing from his mother and gained a strong appreciation of Ukrainian music and Cossack lore from his grandparents. From 1860 he studied at Kharkiv University and Kyiv University, graduating in 1865 with a degree in natural sciences. His stay in Kyiv, his activities in the Hromada of Kyiv, and his close relationships with his cousin Mykhailo Starytsky, and with Volodymyr Antonovych, Tadei Rylsky, and others led Lysenko to make a strong personal commitment to the study and development of Ukrainian music. He worked for two years as an arbitrator in Tarashcha county, then furthered his music studies in Leipzig (1867-9). After returning to Kyiv in 1869 to work as a music teacher and conductor, he moved to Saint Petersburg (1874-6) to study orchestration under Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov; then he returned to Kyiv, where he gave music lessons for many years before opening the Lysenko Music and Drama School in 1904...

Mykola Lysenko



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LYSENKO MUSIC AND DRAMA SCHOOL. A school established in Kyiv 1904 by Mykola Lysenko to foster the development of Ukrainian music. Lysenko financed the project with funds originally gathered by his supporters to buy him a country house for his 35th jubilee celebration. The school's curriculum was on the level of a conservatory, and there was a separate drama department and a museum of Ukrainian folk instruments. The school was directed initially by Lysenko and then by his daughter Mariana Lysenko (1912-18). Teachers included Lysenko, Hryhorii Liubomyrsky, Oleksander Myshuha, and Mariia Starytska. The school was the only Ukrainian higher music school of its day, and its influence in the development of Ukrainian music is reflected in the list of its graduates, which includes Kyrylo Stetsenko, Oleksander Koshyts, Lev Revutsky, and Mykhailo Mykysha. In 1918 the school was reorganized and renamed the Lysenko Music and Drama Institute...

Lysenko Music and Drama School



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STETSENKO, KYRYLO, b 24 May 1882 in Kvitky, Kyiv gubernia, d 29 April 1922 in Vepryk, Kyiv gubernia. Composer, conductor, teacher, and community activist. After graduating from the Kyiv Theological Academy in 1903 Stetsenko began teaching music at the pedagogical institute and conducting church and secular choirs, continued studying composition at the Lysenko Music and Drama School, and participated with leading Ukrainian musical figures in an unsuccessful attempt to establish an independent music publishing house. His activities led to his arrest and exile (1907-10) to a town in the Donbas, where he taught music in a local school. He ceased virtually all his creative work until 1917, when he was recruited to the music department of the Ukrainian National Republic Ministry of Education. Although many of his activities involved organizing and teaching, he also returned to composing and conducting. He took a position as a priest in the village of Vepryk (south of Kyiv) in 1920 after he fell out of favor with the new Soviet authorities. He died of typhus while tending to the sick in his village during a pestilence...

Kyrylo Stetsenko



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LEONTOVYCH, MYKOLA, b 13 December 1877 in Monastyrok, Bratslav county, Podilia gubernia, d 23 January 1921 in Markivka, Haisyn county, Podilia gubernia. Composer, conductor, and teacher. After graduating from the theological seminary in Kamianets-Podilskyi in 1899, he worked as a teacher at various schools in Kyiv gubernia, Katerynoslav gubernia, and Podilia gubernia. In spite of the popularity of his compositions, Leontovych was modest about his work and remained a generally unrecognized figure until he was brought to Kyiv in 1918-19 to teach at Kyiv Conservatory and the Lysenko Music and Drama Institute. He died in tragic circumstances several years later, being shot by a Cheka agent. Leontovych's musical heritage consists primarily of more than 150 choral compositions inspired by the texts and melodies of Ukrainian folk songs. His 'Shchedryk' is particularly renowned. It is better known as 'The Carol of the Bells' in its English version, authored and premiered in 1936 by conductor-educator P. Wilhousky. It has experienced over 150 transmutations in re-arrangements for differing vocal and instrumental combinations...

Mykola Leontovych



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STEPOVY, YAKIV, b 20 October 1883 in Pisky, near Kharkiv, d 4 November 1921 in Kyiv. Composer, teacher, and music critic. Recruited to sing with the Saint Petersburg court choir in 1895, he studied at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory in 1902-9 under Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. He lectured at the Kyiv Conservatory from 1917 and was musical director of the Muzychna Drama Theater and the State Vocal Ensemble from 1919. He died after contracting typhus in Kyiv and was buried in Baikove Cemetery. Stepovy played an important role in establishing a national school of Ukrainian music and is regarded (together with colleagues such as Kyrylo Stetsenko) as one of the luminaries of Ukrainian music. His compositions include numerous art songs for solo voice to the words of Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Lesia Ukrainka, Pavlo Tychyna, Maksym Rylsky, and others; instrumental works such as sonatas, rondos, a fantasia, a cycle of miniatures for piano (1909-13); and two suites for orchestra based on Ukrainian folk songs. Among his works for choir are 50 Ukrainian folk song arrangements...

Yakiv Stepovy



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries featuring Mykola Lysenko and the national school of Ukrainian music were made possible by a generous donation from ARKADI MULAK-YATSKIVSKY of Los Angeles, CA, USA.



Go To Top Of Page  XVI. SCHOLARLY SOCIETIES IN UKRAINE IN THE 19th AND EARLY 20th CENTURIES

Scholarly and literary societies active in Ukraine in the 19th and 20th centuries played a particularly important role not only in the development of scholarship and science in Ukraine, but in the processes of shaping the modern Ukrainian identity. In spite of the fact that all of the learned societies in Russian-ruled Ukraine in the 19th century were overseen by the imperial authorities and were obliged to use Russian in most of its publications and activities, they nonetheless contributed greatly to the research into the history and culture of Ukraine and generally stimulated intellectual life and aroused interest in Ukrainian studies. By the second half of the 19th century the accomplishments of the various scholarly societies and their successes in generating interest in Ukrainian scholarship aroused the suspicion of Russian government. Consequently, in July 1863 Petr Valuev, the minister of the interior, banned the publication in Ukrainian of all scholarly, religious, and educational books. As a reaction to that, the Ukrainophiles, gathered around the Hromada of Kyiv, soon gained control of the semiofficial Southwestern Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society and also convinced Countess Yelysaveta Myloradovych and other wealthy philanthropists to fund the newly formed Shevchenko Society in Lviv, which was soon to become the most prominent Ukrainian scholarly society of the time, the Shevchenko Scientific Society. As ties between the Ukrainian intelligentsia in the Russian Empire and in Austria-Hungary became stronger, Galicia increasingly served as the main center of Ukrainian scholarly activities because it was beyond the reach of tsarist restrictions. In 1876, alarmed by the growth of the Ukrainophile movement, Alexander II banned the printing and importation of Ukrainian-language publications (Ems Ukase). But despite the repression that marked the 1876-1905 period, Ukrainian scholarship made great progress. Ukrainian literature flourished and many more scholarly societies were established... Learn more about scholarly societies in Ukraine by visiting the following entries:




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SCHOLARLY SOCIETIES. The first learned society in Ukraine was the Odesa Society of History and Antiquities (1839). Learned societies did not become widespread, however, until the last few decades of the 19th century. Most were associations of scholars in the humanities, law, and social sciences, such as the Church-Archeological Society (1872) at the Kyiv Theological Academy, the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler (1873) at Kyiv University, the Kharkiv Historical-Philological Society (1877), the Kyiv Juridical Society (1877), the Odesa Historical-Philological Society (1889), the Nizhyn Historical-Philological Society (1894), the Volhynian Church-Archeological Society in Zhytomyr (1894), the Kyiv Society of Antiquities and Art (1897), the Podilia Church Historical-Archeological Society in Kamianets-Podilskyi (1903), and the Kyiv Society for the Preservation of Ancient and Artistic Monuments (1910). In regional studies the first associations were the Society of Kuban Researchers in Katerynodar (1896), a similar one in Katerynoslav (1901), and the Volhynia Research Society in Zhytomyr (1900). In 1907 the Ukrainian Scientific Society was founded in Kyiv to unite all scholars in Russian-ruled Ukraine. It modeled itself on the important, multidisciplinary Shevchenko Scientific Society (NTSh, est 1873), to which most Ukrainian scholars and scientists in Austrian-ruled Galicia belonged. Other societies in Galicia were the Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia (1848), the Society of Friends of Ukrainian Scholarship, Literature, and Art (1904), and the Society of Ukrainian Lawyers (1909)...

Scholarly societies



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ODESA SOCIETY OF HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES. A scholarly society established in Odesa in 1839 to collect, describe, and protect all archeological monuments and historical documents pertaining to Southern Ukraine (including the Zaporozhian Cossacks), the Crimea, and Bessarabia; to prepare and publish historical studies of those regions; and to compile statistical and geographical data about them. The society conducted excavations at the sites of ancient Hellenic colonies (ancient states on the northern Black Sea coast) and kurhans; created a large library, archive, and museum (est 1840, merged with the Odesa Municipal Museum of Antiquities [now the Odesa Archeological Museum] in 1858); supervised museums in Teodosiia (from 1850), Kerch, and Sevastopol (today the Khersones Historical-Archeological Museum) and the Genoese fortresses at Sudak and Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi; and published its own scholarly Zapiski Imperatorskogo Odesskogo obshchestva istorii i drevnostei (33 vols, 1844–1919), monographs, catalogs, and indexes. In 1893 the society had 16 honorary members, 122 full members, and 40 corresponding members and associates. Prominent members included Oleksii Andriievsky, O. Berthier-Delagarde, F. Brun, A. Florovsky, Dmytro Kniazhevych (the first president), V. Latyshev, Nikolai Murzakevich (the first secretary), M. Popruzhenko, Apolon Skalkovsky, E. von Stern, B. Varneke, and V. Yurgevich. The society was abolished under Soviet rule in 1922. Its traditions have been carried on by the Odesa Archeological Society (est 1959)...

Odesa Society of History and Antiquities



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HALYTSKO-RUSKA MATYTSIA. A literary and scholarly-educational society established in June 1848 in Lviv by the Supreme Ruthenian Council. Modeled on Serbian (1826), Czech (1831), and other similar predecessors, the Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia fostered schooling and general cultural enlightenment by publishing popular-science literature, grammars, and textbooks. Rev Mykhailo Kuzemsky was its first head. In 1850 it had 193 dues-paying members, 69 of whom were priests. In 1861 its statute was ratified. In the 1860s it was taken over by the Russophiles (Yakiv Holovatsky, Antin Petrushevych, B. Didytsky, and others), who promoted the use of the artificial, bookish yazychie language and later even Russian. Consequently, the Galician populists founded the Prosvita society in 1868. The activity and influence of the Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia declined in the 1880s, but it continued to exist (with periods of inactivity, 1895-1900, 1909-22) until 1939. The Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia published about 60 books (15 in 1848-50, 15 in 1850-61, 26 in 1862-99, 4 in 1900-39). It also published scholarly serials: Galitskii istoricheskii sbornik (3 vols, 1853-60), Naukovyi sbornik (4 vols, 1865-8), Literaturnyi sbornik (15 vols, 1869-73, 1885-90, 1896-7), and Nauchno-literaturnyi sbornik (8 vols, 1901-2, 1904-6, 1908, 1930, 1934)...

Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia



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HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF NESTOR THE CHRONICLER. Scholarly society founded in 1873 in Kyiv. Named in honor of Nestor the Chronicler, the first Ukrainian chronicler (11th-12th century), it was affiliated from 1876 with Kyiv University and from 1921 with the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. The society's members researched the archeology and history of Ukraine, particularly the history of law, religion, and literature in Ukraine and Russia, and promoted the development of historical studies, including the auxiliary disciplines. The society organized scholarly colloquiums, and published its members' research in Trudy and in Chteniia v Istoricheskom obshchestve Nestora-letopistsa. The society also maintained a library (1,500 volumes in 1892). Among those who headed the society were such eminent scholars as Vladimir Ikonnikov, Volodymyr Antonovych, Mikhail Vladimirsky-Budanov, Mykola Dashkevych, Oleksander Lazarevsky, and Mykola Vasylenko. In the decade after the Revolution of 1917 the society (by then bearing the Ukrainian name Istorychne tovarystvo Nestora-litopystsia) had 212 active members, and from 1920 to 1928 approximately 300 scholarly papers were presented at its meetings. In the early 1930s the society was abolished by the Soviet government...

Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler



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SHEVCHENKO SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY (NTSh). The oldest, and for a long time the only, prominent and fully Ukrainian scholarly society. It was founded on 11 December 1873 in Austrian-ruled Lviv as the Shevchenko Society (Tovarystvo im. Shevchenka) with the aim of fostering the development of Ukrainian literature. The society's initiators were leading Ukrainian community and cultural figures on both sides of the Austrian-Russian border, headed by Oleksander Konysky. Its benefactors included Yelysaveta Myloradovych, Dmytro Pylchykov, Mykhailo Zhuchenko, and Rev Stepan Kachala. The Shevchenko Society's first act was the purchase of a printing press and the establishment of its own publishing house in 1874. By 1891 it had published 20 books and the periodicals Pravda (1878-9) and Zoria (from 1885). Because the publication of Ukrainian literature and scholarship in Russian-ruled Ukraine was severely restricted after the imposition of the 1876 Ems Ukase and subsequent tsarist edicts, in 1893 the Shevchenko Society was reorganized 'to foster and develop science and art in the Ukrainian-Ruthenian language and to preserve and collect the monuments of antiquity and the scientific objects of Ukraine-Rus'.' Renamed the Shevchenko Scientific Society and modeled on Western European scientific institutions, the NTSh pursued the aim of becoming 'the progenitor of a future Ukrainian-Ruthenian academy of sciences.' The NTSh acquired a pan-Ukrainian importance and scholarly prestige under the presidency (1897-1913) of Mykhailo Hrushevsky...

Shevchenko Scientific Society



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UKRAINIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY (UNT). The first Ukrainian-language and openly Ukrainophile learned society in Russian-ruled Ukraine. It was founded in Kyiv on the initiative of Volodymyr Naumenko in 1907, after tsarist restrictions on Ukrainian publishing were lifted following the Revolution of 1905. Its structure and activities were modeled on those of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lviv, with which it maintained close ties. In 1912 the executive council members were Mykhailo Hrushevsky (president from 1908), Orest Levytsky and Ivan M. Steshenko (vice-presidents), and others. The UNT was divided into historical, philological, natural sciences, and, later, technical, medical, archeological, pedagogical, and art sections and commissions on ethnography, linguistics, statistics-economy, and, from 1917, economic history, law, archeography, botany, and 11 other natural sciences. It maintained a library, an archeology and art museum, and the Museum of Ukrainian Personages in Kyiv. The UNT held biweekly lecture meetings, organized scholarly conferences and public lectures, and published original research, surveys, reviews, and some primary-source materials in its serials Zapysky Ukraïns’koho naukovoho tovarystva v Kyievi (18 vols, 1908-14, 1917-18), Ukraina (quarterly, 1914, 1917–18), and Ukrains'kyi naukovyi zhurnal (2 vols, Moscow, 1915-16). The UNT's activities were interrupted by the First World War and consequent tsarist restrictions, persecution, and censorship until 1917. After the Revolution of 1917 the UNT was instrumental in the founding of the Ukrainian State University (Kyiv University) and the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences...

Ukrainian Scientific Society


The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about scholarly societies in Ukraine were made possible by the financial support of the MICHAEL KOWALSKY AND DARIA MUCAK-KOWALSKY ENCYCLOPEDIA ENDOWMENT FUND at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (Edmonton, AB, Canada).



Go To Top Of Page  XVII. LES KURBAS, BEREZIL, AND THE BIRTH OF MODERN UKRAINIAN THEATER

Les Kurbas (1887-1937) was not only the most important organizer and director of the Ukrainian avant-garde theater, but also one of the most outstanding European theater directors in the first half of the 20th century. Hailed by Vsevolod Meyerhold as "the greatest living Soviet theater director" (and thus, elevated above such giants of Russian and European theater as Konstantin Stanislavsky, Alexandr Tairov, and Meyerhold himself), Kurbas worked to create a new tradition of an intellectual and philosophical theater. His Molodyi Teatr productions revolutionized Ukrainian theater (that was crippled for decades by tsarist draconian decrees and circulars), elevating it in style, esthetics, and repertoire to the level of modern European theater. It was in the 1920s, at his Berezil theater, that Kurbas's creative genius became most evident. At its height Berezil employed nearly four hundred people and ran six actors' studios, a directors' lab, a design studio, and a theater museum. However, Kurbas was given only several years to implement his cultural revolution. Accussed by the Soviet officials of nationalism and counterrevolutionary activities, Kurbas was arrested and executed during the Stalinist terror. All of his productions were banned from the Soviet repertoire and most of his archival materials, including all of his films, were destroyed. No serious study of his artistic legacy was allowed to be published in the USSR until the late 1980s... Learn more about Les Kurbas, his brilliant creative legacy, and the birth of modern Ukrainian theater by visiting the following entries:



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KURBAS, LES (Oleksander), b 25 February 1887 in Sambir, Galicia, d 3 November 1937 in a Soviet prison on the Solovets Islands. Outstanding organizer and director of Ukrainian avant-garde theater, filmmaker, actor, and teacher. In 1907-8 he studied philosophy at the University of Vienna and drama with the famous Viennese actor Josef Kainz. After graduating from Lviv University in 1910, he worked as an actor in the troupes of the Hutsul Theater (1911-12) and Lviv's Ukrainska Besida theater (1912-14), founded and directed the Ternopilski Teatralni Vechory theater in Ternopil (1915-16), and worked at Sadovsky's Theater in Kyiv (1916-17). After the February Revolution of 1917 Kurbas reorganized an actors' studio he had founded in 1916 into the Molodyi Teatr theater (1917-19) in Kyiv and became the secretary of the journal Teatral'ni visty...

Les Kurbas



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BEREZIL (March). A theater established in 1922 in Kyiv by the Berezil artistic association as an experimental studio under the artistic direction of Les Kurbas. Achieving recognition as Soviet Ukraine's national theater, it was located in Kyiv until 1926 and then moved to the then capital, Kharkiv. At its height Berezil included six actors' studios (three in Kyiv, one each in Bila Tserkva, Boryspil, and Odesa), close to 400 actors and staff members, a directors' lab, a design studio, a theater museum, and ten committees, including a 'psycho-technical' committee that used applied psychology to develop new teaching methods for actors and directors. Berezil also published a journal, Barykady teatru (Theatrical Barricades)...

Berezil theatre



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MOLODYI TEATR (Young Theater). A theatre troupe in Kyiv headed by Les Kurbas from 1917 to 1919. The core group of actors consisted of graduates of the Lysenko Music and Drama School. Most of the productions were directed by Kurbas, although Hnat Yura, V. Vasilev, and Semen Semdor also directed shows. Anatol Petrytsky was the main stage designer, but Mykhailo Boichuk was invited to create sets for several important productions. Kurbas's articles, such as the 'Manifesto' (in Robitnycha hazeta, 1917), called for a new Ukrainian theatre and outlined the artistic goals of the group. Molodyi Teatr rejected the Ukrainian ethnographic repertoire and presented modern Ukrainian plays and world classics. Kurbas strived to create an intellectual and philosophical theater whose ultimate aim was to return to its ritualistic roots and to become once again some form of a religious act...

Molodyi Teatr



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KRUSHELNYTSKY, MARIAN, b 18 April 1897 in Pyliava, Buchach county, Galicia, d 5 April 1963 in Kyiv. Actor and play director of Les Kurbas's school; educator. Making his stage debut in 1915 in the Ternopilski Teatralni Vechory theater, he subsequently acted in the Ukrainian Theater in Ternopil (1918, 1920-1), the New Lviv Theater (1919), the Franko Ukrainian Drama Theater in Vinnytsia (1920), and the Ukrainska Besida Theater in Lviv (1922-4). Then he was one of the leading actors of the Berezil theater, and after Les Kurbas's arrest and the dissolution of Berezil, Krushelnytsky was appointed in 1934 artistic director and chief play director of the Kharkiv Ukrainian Drama Theater. He modified the theater's profile, particularly its repertoire, according to the demands of socialist realism...

Marian Krushelnytsky



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BUCHMA, AMVROSII, b 14 March 1891 in Lviv, d 6 January 1957 in Kyiv. Prominent stage and screen actor, director, and teacher. Buchma began his stage career at the Ruska Besida theater in Lviv in 1910. In 1917 he studied at the Lysenko Music and Drama School in Kyiv. In 1920 he worked in the Kyiv Ukrainian Drama Theater and in 1923-6 in the Berezil theater, where he played such memorable roles as Jimmie Higgins in an adaptation of Upton Sinclair's novel, Leiba in an adaptation of Taras Shevchenko's Haidamaky, Jean in Prosper Merime's La Jacquerie, and the Fool in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. At the same time he became a film actor and later left the theater to devote himself solely to the cinema (1926-30). The main roles in which he appeared in these years were those of Jimmie Higgins, Mykola Dzheria, Taras Shevchenko, Taras Triasylo (in films of the same titles), the leading role of Hordii in The Night Coachman and the German soldier in Oleksander Dovzhenko's Arsenal...

Amvrosii Buchma



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries associated with the creative legacy of Les Kurbas and his Berezil and Molodyi Teatr theaters were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  XVIII. MODERNIST MUSIC IN SOVIET UKRAINE: THE 1920s GENERATION

The establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine in the early 1920s proved to be a mixed blessing for musical development. State support for the art has strengthened the music education system, underwritten the printing of musical journals and scores, and provided steady employment for musicians, composers, and music critics. The state, however, most often fostered mediocre work in its demand for ideological conformity and in its effort to maintain socialist realism as a cultural policy. The most open period for musical composition in Soviet Ukraine was the 1920s, before the onset of Stalinism. A major body for the promotion of Ukrainian musical development at that time was the Leontovych Music Society, which was formed in 1922 and sponsored the flagship music journal Muzyka. Several very talented young composers appeared at that time and developed into pivotal figures in the history of Ukrainian music. The most prominent among them were Borys Liatoshynsky, Lev Revutsky, Pylyp Kozytsky, Mykhailo Verykivsky, Viktor Kosenko, and Yulii Meitus. The Leontovych society was dissolved in 1928 as a result of government pressure and in the 1930s the Soviet regime established the concept of socialist realism as a norm for artistic activity. The majority of Soviet Ukrainian composers were coerced to produce lackluster works dedicated to the glory of the Communist Party and its leaders. In spite of these constrictions, some composers, most notably Borys Liatoshynsky, continued to compose musical works of the highest calibre... Learn more about the modernist music in Soviet Ukraine in the 1920s by visiting the following entries:




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LIATOSHYNSKY, BORYS, b 3 January 1895 in Zhytomyr, d 15 April 1968 in Kyiv. Composer and teacher. He graduated in law from Kyiv University in 1918, and then in music (studying under Reinhold Gliere) from the Kyiv Conservatory in 1919. He lectured at the conservatory from 1920 and was appointed professor of composition there in 1935. Liatoshynsky is one of the initiators and main representatives of the modern school in Ukrainian music, using expressionistic style and atonal technique. His mastery of composition and instrumentation is shown throughout his repertoire. His contribution to Ukrainian music lies in a skillful blending of Ukrainian themes with contemporary European style. In spite of a harsh criticism of his work by the Party critics and the official ban on such compositions as his Symphony No. 2, Liatoshynsky did not compromise and never adhered to the style of socialist realism. Together with Lev Revutsky, he exerted a profound influence on Ukrainian composers of the younger generation. Among his students were such prominent composers as Valentyn Sylvestrov, Leonid Hrabovsky, Yevhen Stankovych, and others...

Borys Liatoshynsky



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REVUTSKY, LEV, b 20 February 1889 in Irzhavets, Pryluky county, Poltava gubernia, d 30 March 1977 in Kyiv. Composer, teacher, music activist. He graduated from the Kyiv Conservatory in 1916, having studied with Mykola Lysenko, Hryhorii Liubomyrsky, Hryhorii Khodorovsky, and Reinhold Gliere. After being appointed in 1924 to the Lysenko Music and Drama Institute in Kyiv, Revutsky reached the height of his composing career. His compositions were innovative and continued the trend of the Ukrainian national school into the Soviet era. His two symphonies (1920 and 1926), which showed his keen ear for orchestral color, were notable developments in Ukrainian music. His chamber and piano works (preludes for piano, works for violin and cello with piano) displayed a fresh musical language, influenced by impressionism, and technical skill. With the escalation of Stalinist terror in 1934, Revutsky was severely criticized by the authorities for his Piano Concerto No. 2. He subsequently spopped composing new music and focused his energies in the area of teaching...

Lev Revutsky



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KOZYTSKY, PYLYP, b 23 October 1893 in Letychivka, Lypovets county, Kyiv gubernia, d 27 April 1960 in Kyiv. Composer and educator. A graduate of the Kyiv Theological Academy (1917) and the Kyiv Conservatory (1920), where he studied under Boleslav Yavorsky and Reinhold Gliere, he taught at the Lysenko Music and Drama Institute in Kyiv (1918-24), the Kharkiv Music and Drama Institute (1925-35), and the Kyiv Conservatory. He was a founding member of the Leontovych Music Society, whose magazines Muzyka (1923-7) and Muzyka masam (1928-31) he edited, and president of the Union of Composers of Ukraine (1952-6). His works include two operas, the orchestral suite Kozak Holota (1925), a symphonic poem, string quartets, preludes for piano, choral works, church music, arrangements of folk songs, and film and drama scores (notably, to some productions of Les Kurbas' Berezil theater). Influenced by expressionism, Kozytsky's work often draws upon Ukrainian folk songs and is tied to the national school of Ukrainian classical music, established by Mykola Lysenko...

Pylyp Kozytsky



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VERYKIVSKY, MYKHAILO, b 20 November 1896 in Kremianets, Volhynia gubernia, d 14 June 1962 in Kyiv. Composer, conductor, and teacher. He graduated from the Kyiv Conservatory (1923) in the composition class of Boleslav Yavorsky and then conducted the orchestras of the Kyiv Opera (1926-8), the Kharkiv Opera (1928-35), and symphony orchestras in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Moscow, and Ufa. He also taught at the Lysenko Music and Drama Institute and the Kyiv Conservatory. His works include the ballet Pan Kanovsky (1930, 2nd edn 1953); the Taras Shevchenko-based operas The Captain (1938) and The Servant Girl (1940); operas to texts by Leonid Hlibov, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, and Ostap Vyshnia; an oratorio on Marusia Bohuslavka; five cantatas; a concerto for piano and orchestra (1950); a number of orchestral works; a large body of piano music; chamber and church music; original choral works and arrangements of Ukrainian folk songs for chorus; and about 70 original solo art songs and settings of Ukrainian folk songs for voice and piano...

Mykhailo Verykivsky



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KOSENKO, VIKTOR, b 23 November 1896 in Saint Petersburg, d 3 October 1938 in Kyiv. Pianist, composer, and educator. A child prodigy pianist, student of A. Michalowski in Warsaw, and a graduate of the Petrograd Conservatory (1918), where he studied under Ivan Myklashevsky, Kosenko began to lecture at the Zhytomyr Music Tekhnikum in 1918, at the Lysenko Music and Drama Institute in 1929, and at the Kyiv Conservatory in 1934. At the same time he gave piano concerts in different cities of Ukraine. His works, influenced by the neoclassical tradition in music, include a sonata for cello and piano (1923), Classical Trio for piano, violin, and cello (1927), a sonata for violin and piano (1927), Heroic Overture (1932), Moldavian Poem (1937), a piano concerto, three piano sonatas, a trio, a violin concerto, about 100 piano pieces, including 24 pieces for children (1936), and many art songs...

Viktor Kosenko



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MEITUS, YULII, b 28 January 1903 in Yelysavethrad (now Kirovohrad), d 2 April 1997 in Kyiv. Composer. A graduate of the Kharkiv Music and Drama Institute (1931) in the class of Semen Bohatyrov, he worked as a composer for his entire life. His works include 14 operas, most notably Perekop (1939-40) and Haidamaky (1940-1) (both composed with Vsevolod Rybalchenko and Mykhailo Tits), Abadan (composed with A. Kuliev, 1942-3), Star over the Dvina (1951-5), Stolen Happiness (1958-9) based on the drama by Ivan Franko, and Yaroslav the Wise (1973); five orchestral suites; choral and choral-orchestral works on Ukrainian and Turkmen folk themes; art songs to texts by Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, and others; and music for the theater (most notably, for 13 of Les Kurbas' productions in the Berezil theater) and films. Fairly modern in style, Meitus is a notable representative of 20th-century Ukrainian music and in particular Ukrainian opera...

Yulii Meitus



The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries associated with the Ukrainian modernist music of the 1920's generation were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  XIX. UKRAINIAN POETIC CINEMA

The tradition of Ukrainian poetic cinema originated with the work of the film director Oleksander Dovzhenko and, in particular, with his film Zvenyhora (1927), originally scripted by Yurii Tiutiunnyk and Maik Yohansen. This film is considered to mark the beginning of Ukrainian national cinematography. At the same time, with his rich lyricism and the poetic power of his symbolic scenes and landscapes, Dovzhenko created a unique phenomenon in world cinema and was hailed as the 'first poet of the cinema.' Zvenyhora was followed by Dovzhenko's Arsenal (1929) and Zemlia (The Earth, 1930). These and other Ukrainian silent films of the 1920s marked a considerable technical and artistic achievement in the history of silent film. Many of them were attacked by the official critics for nationalist deviations and were banned in the early 1930s. Ivan Kavaleridze's film Zlyva (The Downpour, 1929) was criticized with particular severity for its attempt to present the epic of the Haidamaka uprisings and for its experiments with innovations in form and film technique. The end of silent films in the history of the Ukrainian cinema coincided with the beginning of the Stalinist campaign to crush Ukrainian culture, including the cinema. Until the 1950s the standard film was a Party-approved socialist-realist adaptation of a literary work about a Soviet civil war hero. Ukrainian history was distorted and the artistic quality of films dramatically declined. It was not until the 1960s that the Ukrainian poetic cinema tradition was revived in 1964 with the brilliant film adaptation of Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky's novel Tini zabutykh predkiv (Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors), directed by Serhii Paradzhanov, camera work by Yurii Illienko, which won numerous awards at international film festivals. However, this original Ukrainian tradition was immediately attacked by the Communist Party and Soviet censorship. Two outstanding early films directed by Yurii Illienko were banned from distribution, while most other significant film projects were closed down during production or released in highly censored versions. In spite of this government interference, several remarkable examples of the Ukrainian poetic cinema were produced in the 1960s through 1980s, including Kaminnyi khrest (The Stone Cross, 1968) by Leonid Osyka, Bilyi ptakh z chornoiu oznakoiu (White Bird with a Black Spot, 1972) by Yurii Illienko, and Vavylon-XX (Babylon-XX, 1979) by Ivan Mykolaichuk... Learn more about the Ukrainian poetic cinema by visiting the following entries:




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DOVZHENKO, OLEKSANDER, b 10 September 1894 in the village of Sosnytsia, Chernihiv gubernia, d 25 November 1956 in Moscow. Film director and screenwriter. During the struggle for independence (1917-20) Dovzhenko participated in the revolutionary events in Kyiv and in 1919-20 belonged to the Borotbists party. In 1921-3 he worked in Warsaw and Berlin as a member of Ukrainian diplomatic missions. He had begun studying painting in Berlin and continued to paint in Kharkiv. In 1926 Dovzhenko began to work as a film director at the Odesa Artistic Film Studio. Drawing on Ukrainian history, in 1927 he created the film Zvenyhora, which is considered to mark the beginning of Ukrainian national cinematography. Dovzhenko's expressionist film Arsenal (1929) is devoted to the revolutionary events in Kyiv in 1918. His last silent movie, Zemlia (The Earth, 1930), dealing with the collectivization drive in Ukraine, is a masterpiece. Dovzhenko was severely criticized as a Ukrainian nationalist for this film and for his next film, Ivan (1932), about the building of the Dnieper Dam. He was forced to move to Moscow, where he lived as if in exile until his death. In 1948 he made his last film, Zhyttia v tsvitu (Life in Bloom), which was devoted to botanist Ivan Michurin. Dovzhenko's films earned him a reputation as 'first poet of the cinema' and as one of the world's leading film directors. An international jury in 1958 ranked his Zemlia among the 12 best films in world cinematography...

Oleksander Dovzhenko



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KAVALERIDZE, IVAN, , b 26 April 1887 at Ladanskyi khutir near Romny, Kharkiv gubernia, d 3 December 1978 in Kyiv. Sculptor, film director, dramatist, and screenwriter. He studied art at the Kyiv Art School (1907-9), the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts (1909-10), and with N. Aronson in Paris (1910-11). His sculptures include busts of famous people such as F. Chaliapin (1909), and over 100 monuments in various cities of Ukraine: eg, the monument to Princess Olha in Kyiv (1911); the Taras Shevchenko monuments in Kyiv (1918), Romny (1918), Poltava (1925), and Sumy (1926); and the Hryhorii Skovoroda monuments in Lokhvytsia (1922) and Kyiv (1977). In the 1920s his work was influenced by cubism. His group compositions--Bohdan Khmelnytsky Sends the Kobza Players into the Villages (1954) or Prometheus (1962)--are somewhat stylized. In 1928 he became interested in filmmaking. He scripted and directed a number of innovative historical films marked by stylization and monumentalism: Zlyva (The Downpour, 1929), Perekop (1930), and Prometei (Prometheus, 1936). Accused of 'nationalist deviation' and formalism, he was forced to turn to popular themes and a simplified style. He adapted the operas: Mykola Lysenko's Natalka Poltavka (Natalka from Poltava, 1936) and Semen Hulak-Artemovsky's Zaporozhets' za Dunaiem (Zaporozhian Cossack beyond the Danube, 1938) for film. After the Second World War he directed the films Hryhorii Skovoroda (1960) and Poviia (The Strumpet, 1961) based on Panas Myrny's novel...

Ivan Kavaleridze



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PARADZHANOV, SERHII, (also Parajanov, Sergei; Paradzhanian, Sarkis), b 9 January 1924 in Tbilisi, Georgia, d 21 July 1990 in Yerevan, Armenian SSR. Armenian and Ukrainian film director. He graduated from the State Institute of Cinema Arts in Moscow (1951) and began working at the Kyiv Artistic Film Studio, where he created several short films and musicals. International acclaim came to Paradzhanov in 1964 after the screening of Tini zabutykh predkiv (Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors, based on Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky's novella). It was awarded 16 prizes in all at international film festivals for its magnificent combination of camera work (by Yurii Illienko) with atonal music (by Myroslav Skoryk), bright colors, masterful editing, and brilliant acting (with Ivan Mykolaichuk playing the lead role). In 1965-8 Paradzhanov was harassed for writing letters of protest against the unlawful arrests of intellectuals. He moved to Armenia and experimented in a new cinema technique of superimposition of different colors (The Color of Pomegranates, 1969). In 1971 he returned to Kyiv and began working on Kyivs'ki fresky (Kyivan Frescoes), but the filming was stopped, and he was arrested in 1973 on spurious charges and sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment. In 1977, after international pressure was applied, Paradzhanov was released from prison, only to be arrested again in 1982. His work was restricted as a result of the arrest; nevertheless, in 1984 he produced the film The Legend of Surami Fortress and later coauthored the screenplay Swan Lake: The Zone, which was directed by Yurii Illienko (1989)...

Serhii Paradzhanov



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ILLIENKO, YURII, b 18 July 1936 in Cherkasy, d 15 June 2010 in Prokhorivka, Cherkasy oblast. Film director and cinematographer. His camera work in Serhii Paradzhanov's Tini zabutykh predkiv (Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors, 1964) earned him international recognition. Illienko made his debut as a film director with the black-and-white Krynytsia dlia sprahlykh (A Well for the Thirsty, 1966), but the film was banned by Soviet censors. His second film: his adaptation of Nikolai Gogol's stories Vechir na Ivana Kupala (The Eve of Ivan Kupalo, 1967) was accepted for competition at the Venice Film Festival, but the USSR Ministry of Culture did not release it and soon afterwards banned the film. Then Illienko co-scripted (with Ivan Mykolaichuk) and directed Bilyi ptakh z chornoiu oznakoiu (White Bird with a Black Mark, 1971), which won a gold medal at the Moscow International Film Festival. His other films include Lisova pisnia--Mavka (The Forest Song: Mavka, 1980), Lehenda pro kniahyniu Ol'hu (The Legend of Princess Olha, 1983), and Lebedyne ozero. Zona (Swan Lake. The Zone, 1990) that won two major awards at the Cannes Film Festival. Illienko's last feature film was the experimental Molytva za het'mana Mazepu (Prayer for Hetman Mazepa, 2002). Illienko's highly personal cinema was deeply rooted in Ukrainian history and folklore. His original cinematographic style used subjective camera and explored the diverse potentialities of color. His oeuvre sets Illienko apart from the majority of his contemporary Ukrainian filmmakers and makes him one of the most accomplished masters of Ukrainian cinema...

Yurii Illienko



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OSYKA, LEONID, b 8 March 1940 in Kyiv, d 16 September 2001 in Kyiv. Film director. He graduated from the State Institute of Cinema Arts in Moscow (1966). Among his films are a poetic cinema version of Vasyl Stefanyk's novellas called Kaminnyi khrest (The Stone Cross, 1968) and the heroic epic cinema version of Ivan Franko's Zakhar Berkut (1972), as well as Tryvozhnyi misiats' veresen' (The Alarming Month of September, 1977), More (The Sea, 1978), a film about the painter Mikhail Vrubel Etiudy pro Vrubelia (Etudes about Vrubel, 1989), a cinema version of Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky's story Podarunok na imenymy (A Name Day Gift, 1991), and a film Het'mans'ki kleinody (Hetman's Jewels, 1993), based on a novel by Bohdan Lepky. Osyka was awarded the Shevchenko Prize in 1997. Documentary films about Osyka include Druh mii Lion'ka (My Friend Lionka, 2004) by Timur Zoloev and Leonid Osyka (2013) by Nataliia Kalatranova...

Leonid Osyka



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MYKOLAICHUK, IVAN, b 15 June 1941 in Chortoryia, Bukovyna, d 3 August 1987 in Kyiv. Film actor, screenwriter, and director. In 1957 he completed drama studies at the Chernivtsi Ukrainian Music and Drama Theater, and in 1965 he graduated from the Kyiv Institute of Theater Arts. From 1965 he worked in the Kyiv Artistic Film Studio. Following the esthetic traditions of Oleksander Dovzhenko, he gave intense, realistic portrayals of archetypal and historical characters in films such as Son (The Dream, based on Taras Shevchenko's poem, directed by Volodymyr Denysenko, 1964), Tini zabutykh predkiv (Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors, directed by Serhii Paradzhanov, 1964), Zakhar Berkut (directed by Leonid Osyka, 1972), Bilyi ptakh z chornoiu oznakoiu (A White Bird with a Black Mark, 1972, written with Yurii Illienko), and Vavilon-XX (Babylon-XX, 1979, based on a novel by Vasyl Zemliak), which he himself directed. On the basis of Mykolaichuk's script Illienko directed the film Mriiaty i zhyty (To Dream and Live, 1975). Mykolaichuk also directed the film Taka piznia, taka, tepla osin' (Such a Late, Such a Warm Autumn, 1982, written with Vitalii Korotych). A book of memoirs about Mykolaichuk, interview with him, and his scenarios was published in Kyiv in 1991...

Ivan Mykolaichuk


The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about the Ukrainian poetic cinema were made possible by the financial support of the STEPHEN AND OLGA PAWLUK UKRAINIAN STUDIES ENDOWMENT FUND at the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (Edmonton, AB, Canada).



Go To Top Of Page  XX. THE UKRAINIAN MUSIC OF THE SOCIALIST REALIST PERIOD (1930s-1950s)

The establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine in the 1920s has proved to be a mixed blessing for musical development in Ukraine. On the one hand, state support for the art has strengthened the music education system, underwritten the printing of music journals and scores, and provided steady employment for musicians, composers, and music critics. On the other hand, however, the state has consistently fostered mediocre work in its demand for ideological conformity, especially after the consolidation of power in the hands of Joseph Stalin and the intensification of political control in the USSR in the 1930s. In the early 1930s socialist-realism was introduced as the only officially sanctioned so-called 'creative method' in Soviet literature, art, and music. Although it was more difficult to enforce the principles of this 'method' in music compared to literature or art, composers were consistently compelled to renounce 'formalist' experimentations and simplify their musical language in order to become 'closer to the working masses.' The Party-controlled Union of Soviet Composers, established in 1932, sought to 'educate' its members politically and ideologically and impose control over their creative output. Consequently, a large repertoire of lackluster works dedicated to Vladimir Lenin, the glory of the Communist Party, the memory of the Second World War, heroic women workers, and like themes were commissioned over the years. In spite of these constrictions, composers such as Lev Revutsky, Borys Liatoshynsky, Vasyl Barvinsky, Stanyslav Liudkevych, Viktor Kosenko, Valentyn Kostenko, Borys Yanovsky, Andrii Shtoharenko, Kostiantyn Dankevych, Yulii Meitus, Heorhii Maiboroda, Roman Simovych, Mykola Kolessa, and Anatol Kos-Anatolsky produced interesting and challenging works even during the most difficult period of the 1930s-1950s. This ideological pressure eased only in the 1960s, which allowed for the emergence of a new generation of Ukrainian composers... Learn more about the Ukrainian music of the socialist-realist period (1930s-1950s) by visiting the following entries:




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KOSTENKO, VALENTYN, b 28 July 1895 in Urazovo, Valuiki county, Voronezh gubernia, d 14 July 1960 in Kharkiv. Composer, musicologist, and educator. As a youth he sang in the court kapelle in Saint Petersburg, and in 1921 he graduated from the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. From 1923 he taught at the Kharkiv Music and Drama Institute and served as musical director of Kharkiv Ukrainian Radio. In 1927-32 he headed the Association of Revolutionary Composers of Ukraine. His compositions, which were influenced by contemporary European music, include the operas Karmeliuk, Nazar Stodolia (based on the play by Taras Shevchenko), and The Carpathians; the ballet Reborn Steppe; the symphony The Year 1917; a suite for symphony orchestra; violin, piano, and choral pieces; and six string quartets. His scholarly publications include studies of Pavlo Senytsia (1922), the role of folk songs in Ukrainian music (1928), and the influence of German expressionism on Ukrainian music (1929). He also prepared a textbook on musical theory...

Valentyn Kostenko



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SHTOHARENKO, ANDRII, b 15 October 1902 in Novi Kaidaky, now part of Dnipro, d 15 November 1992 in Kyiv. Composer and pedagogue. In 1912 he entered the Russian Music Society's music school in Katerynoslav. He organized his own orchestra in Dnipropetrovsk during the 1920s and taught singing in high schools. Shtoharenko was recruited in 1930 to study composition with Semen Bohatyrov at the Kharkiv Conservatory. He graduated in 1936 and gained immediate recognition with the symphonic cantata Pro kanal's'ki roboty (About the Canal Work, 1936). He occupied several key administrative positions in the musical hierarchy of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1944 he became vice-chairman of the Union of Composers of Ukraine, and in 1948-54 he was vice-chairman of the USSR Union of Composers. In 1954-68 he was a teacher of composition and rector of the Kyiv Conservatory. In 1968 he became head of the Faculty of Composition there and head of the Union of Composers of Ukraine. Shtoharenko's works include the symphonic cantata Ukraino moia (My Ukraine, 1943), the Kyiv Symphony (1972), symphonic suites, a violin concerto, chamber and choral pieces, art songs, incidental music, and film scores. His biography, by M. Borovyk, was published in Kyiv in 1965. He was awarded the Shevchenko State Prize in 1974...

Andrii Shtoharenko



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DANKEVYCH, KOSTIANTYN, b 24 December 1905 in Odesa, d 26 February 1984 in Kyiv. Composer, conductor, pedagogue. On graduating from the Odesa Institute of Music and Drama (now the Odesa State Music Academy) in 1929, he joined its staff. He became a professor there in 1948, serving as its director until 1951; in 1953 he took up a professorship at the Kyiv Conservatory. From 1956 to 1967 he was head of the Union of Composers of Ukraine. His works include the operas Trahediina nich (Tragic Night, 1935), Bohdan Khmelnytsky (1951; new version, 1953), and Nazar Stodolia (1960); the ballet Lileia (Lily, 1939); two symphonies (1937, 1945); the symphonic poems Otello (Othello, 1937) and Taras Shevchenko (1939); a string quartet; a trio; choral works; and film scores and art songs for solo voice. M. Mykhailov wrote a monograph on Dankevych (Kyiv 1959, 1964, 1974)...

Kostiantyn Dankevych



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MAIBORODA, HEORHII, b 1 December 1913 at Pelekhivshchyna khutir, Kremenchuk county, Poltava gubernia, d 7 December 1992 in Kyiv. Composer. A student of Lev Revutsky, he graduated from (1941; graduate studies, 1949) and taught at (1952-8) the Kyiv Conservatory. In 1967-8 he served as head of the Union of Composers of Ukraine, and in 1967, 1971, and 1975 as deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR. His works commonly use heroic and patriotic themes in monumental forms, and achieved wide recognition among Soviet state authorities and the general public. He composed the operas Mylana (1957), Arsenal (1960), Taras Shevchenko (1964), and Yaroslav the Wise (1973); three symphonies (1940, 1952, 1976); a concerto for voice and orchestra (1969); the symphonic poems Lily, (text by Taras Shevchenko, 1939) and Kameniari (Stone-cutters, text by Ivan Franko, 1941); the vocal-symphonic poem Zaporozhians (text by Liubov Zabashta, 1954); and the orchestral Hutsul Rhapsody (1949). He also wrote songs to texts by Volodymyr Sosiura, Teren Masenko, Adam Mickiewicz, Lesia Ukrainka, I. Franko, and Pavlo Tychyna, as well as incidental music for William Shakespeare's Hamlet and King Lear. Together with L. Revutsky he edited and orchestrated piano and violin concertos by Viktor Kosenko. He was awarded the Shevchenko State Prize in 1963...

Heorhii Maiboroda



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SIMOVYCH, ROMAN, b 28 February 1901 in Sniatyn, Galicia, d 30 July 1984 in Lviv. Composer and teacher. He graduated in composition and piano from the Prague Conservatory in 1933 and completed its Master School in 1936 in the composition class of V. Novak. From 1936 he taught at the Lysenko Higher Institute of Music in Drohobych and Stanyslaviv. From 1951 he lectured at the Lviv Conservatory (professor in 1963). His compositions include the ballet Dovbush's Sopilka (1948), seven symphonies (including the Hutsul [no. 1] and the Lemko [no. 2]); the symphonic poems Maksym Kryvonis (1954), Dovbush (1955), and In Memory of Ivan Franko (1956); overtures for symphony orchestra; a string quartet; numerous works for piano (two trios and two sonatas, three suites, a sonatina, and a fantasia); and works for choir with orchestra and for choir a cappella...

Roman Simovych



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KOS-ANATOLSKY, ANATOL (real surname: Kos), b 1 December 1909 in Kolomyia, Galicia, d 30 November 1983 in Lviv. Composer and educator. A graduate of the law faculty of Lviv University (1931) and Lviv Conservatory (1934), he taught at the Stryi Branch of the Lysenko Higher Institute of Music (1934-7) and later at the Lviv Conservatory (1952-83). His works include the opera To Meet the Sun (1957, revised as The Fiery Sky, 1959); the ballets Dovbush's Kerchief (1951), The Jay's Wing (1956), and Orysia (1964); the operetta Spring Storms (1960); the cantatas It Passed a Long Time Ago (1961) and The Immortal Testament (1963); the oratorio From the Niagara to the Dnieper (1969); two piano concertos and two violin concertos; chamber music; piano pieces; and choral works. He was awarded the Shevchenko State Prize in 1980...

Anatol Kos-Anatolsky


The preparation, editing, and display of the IEU entries about the Ukrainian music of the socialist-realist period (1930s-1950s) were made possible by the financial support of the CANADIAN FOUNDATION FOR UKRAINIAN STUDIES.



Go To Top Of Page  XXI. UKRAINIAN COMPOSERS OF THE 1960s GENERATION

In the 1930s the Soviet regime established the concept of socialist realism as a norm for artistic activity in all areas of culture, including music. The result was a wholesale retreat from the modernist approach to music and composing that flourished in Ukraine in the 1920s. This ideological pressure eased somewhat only in the 1960s. The relaxation allowed for a whole group of young composers to use the newest means of musical expression. Many of these composers were students of Borys Liatoshynsky at the Kyiv Conservatory, as Liatoshynsky, together with Lev Revutsky, exerted a profound influence on the next generation of Ukrainian composers. In the early 1960s, some of Liatoshynsky's students, including Leonid Hrabovsky, Valentyn Sylvestrov, Vitalii Hodziatsky, Volodymyr Zahortsev, and Volodymyr Huba, became fascinated with modernist compositional techniques that were proscribed in the USSR. They formed a group that went by the name 'Kyiv Avant-Garde' and the appearance of this group created much interest abroad, especially in the United States, although in Kyiv their achievements did not reach beyond a narrow circle of listeners. Other young composers, such as Myroslav Skoryk, Lesia Dychko, and, among the younger generation, Yevhen Stankovych, Ivan Karabyts, and others have created original syntheses of the traditional with the modern and formed a loose group of composers known as 'the Neofolkloric Wave.' These two currents in the Ukrainian music of the 1960s, complemented by the work of other composers from various cities and representing different musical trends, created a remarkable revival of Ukrainian music in the second half of the 20th century... Learn more about the Ukrainian composers of the 1960s generation by visiting the following entries:




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HRABOVSKY, LEONID, b 28 January 1935 in Kyiv. Composer. Hrabovsky studied composition first under Lev Revutsky and then under Borys Liatoshynsky at the Kyiv Conservatory (1954-59). He later taught at the conservatory in 1961-3 and 1966-8. Hrabovsky's compositional debut, Four Ukrainian Folk Songs for mixed chorus and symphony orchestra (1959), were awarded first prize at an all-Union music competition in 1962 and won high praise from Dimitri Shostakovich. Not interested in working within the officially sanctioned Soviet style of socialist realism, Hrabovsky initially composed in the dodecaphonist and aleatoric techniques. An avid student of classical and modernist theories of composition, he translated several Western music theory textbooks and quickly established a reputation as a innovative composer, associated with the 'Kyiv Avant-Garde.' As opposed to his colleague, Valentyn Sylvestrov, who worked with avant-garde techniques, but retained a characteristically lyrical expression, Hrabovsky became interested in serial music and composition methods based on mathematical algorithms. The most accomplished composition in this technique was his Concerto misterioso (1977), based on the melodic structures of Ukrainian folk songs and dedicated to the memory of the folk painter Kateryna Bilokur. Hrabovsky's music was harshly criticized in the Soviet press in the 1960s and 1970s and his works were hardly ever performed in Ukraine. He made a living by composing music to films produced at the Kyiv Artistic Film Studio. Eventually, Hrabovsky was forced to leave Kyiv for Moscow and in 1990 he emigrated to the United States...

Leonid Hrabovsky



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SYLVESTROV, VALENTYN (Silvestrov, Valentin), b 30 September 1937 in Kyiv. Composer. He studied composition under Borys Liatoshynsky and counterpoint under Lev Revutsky at the Kyiv Conservatory (1958-64). Working in a modernist idiom, he quickly established a reputation as one of several innovative musicians of the 'Kyiv Avant-Garde.' In many of his works he adopted dodecaphonist and avant-garde techniques, at the same time retaining a characteristically lyrical expression. Sylvestrov's music was harshly criticized in the Soviet press in the 1960s and 1970s and he was temporarily excluded from the Composers Union of Ukraine. His works were hardly ever performed in Ukraine, but several successful performances in the Russian FSSR attracted attention of the music critics. Sylvestrov soon developed an international reputation, winning the International Koussevitsky Prize (USA, 1967) and the International Young Composers' Competition Gaudeamus (Holland, 1970). In the 1970s, with his cycle of art songs Tykhi pisni (Quiet Songs), Sylvestrov moved away from the conventional techniques of the Western avant-garde and developed a slow-moving, tonally-rooted musical language imbued with a deep sense of mysticism. He later developed a style, somewhat akin to Western post-modernism, which he termed 'metamusic' (short for 'metaphorical music'). In the 2000s, by then a world-renowned composer, Sylvestrov moved even further away from the Western avant-garde by composing cycles of tonally-based, melodic bagatellen for piano as well as liturgical music for choir a capella, closely linked to the tradition of Ukrainian church music...

Valentyn Sylvestrov (Silvestrov)



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SKORYK, MYROSLAV, b 13 July 1938 in Lviv. Composer, conductor, and musicologist. His exceptional musical talent was recognized in his childhood by his great aunt, the famous opera singer Solomiia Krushelnytska, who encouraged Myroslav's parents to enrol him in a music school. However, his education was interrupted in 1947 when, during the wave of postwar Stalinist repressions, the Skoryk family was arrested by the Soviet authorities and exiled to Siberia. Skoryk was able to return to Lviv only in 1955. He graduated (1960) from the Lviv Conservatory in the classes of Adam Soltys, Stanyslav Liudkevych, and Roman Simovych and then completed graduate studies (1964) at the Moscow Conservatory in the composition class of Dmitri Kabalevsky. He subsequently lectured in composition at the Lviv Conservatory (1964-6) and the Kyiv Conservatory (1966-88), returning to Lviv in 1988. Since 1999 Skoryk has been professor of the history of Ukrainian music at the National Music Academy of Ukraine. In 2004-10 he was co-head (with Yevhen Stankovych) of the National Union of Composers of Ukraine. He was awarded the Shevchenko Prize in 1987. One of the most notable contemporary Ukrainian composers, Skoryk has written two ballets, the opera Moses (2001, based on the poem by Ivan Franko), Hutsul Triptych (1965, based on his film score to Serhii Paradzhanov's Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors), Carpathian Concerto (1972), the symphonic work 1933, and the Penitential Psalm (2015) in honour of the "Heavenly Hundred." He has also written 9 concertos for violin, 3 concertos for piano, 2 concertos for violoncello, and one concerto for viola; chamber music; and film scores. Deeply inspired by Ukrainian musical folklore, in the 1960s Skoryk was the leader of a group of composers known as 'the Neofolkloric Wave'...

Myroslav Skoryk



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STANKOVYCH, YEVHEN, b 19 September 1942 in Svaliava, Berehove county, Transcarpathia. Composer. He studied at the Lviv Conservatory under Adam Soltys before transferring to the Kyiv Conservatory where he studied under Borys Liatoshynsky and Myroslav Skoryk and graduated in composition in 1970. He worked as an editor at the Muzychna Ukraina publishing house in 1970-6. He was awarded the Shevchenko Prize in 1977. He has worked as professor at the Kyiv Conservatory (now National Music Academy of Ukraine) since 1988. In 2004-10 he was co-head (with Myroslav Skoryk) of the National Union of Composers of Ukraine. One of the most prolific contemporary Ukrainian composers, Stankovych has written six symphonies and several symphonic works, including Overture, Fantasia, two sinfoniettas, and a symphonic poem dedicated to Stepan Turchak; three violin concertos as well as concertos for violoncello and orchestra, viola and orchestra, and flute and orchestra; eight symphonies for chamber orchestra. He has composed the triptych In the Highlands for violin and pianoforte, three sonatas for violoncello and piano, a string quartet, and numerous other works of chamber music. Deeply inspired by Ukrainian musical folklore, in the 1960s Stankovych belonged to a group of composers known as 'the Neofolkloric Wave.' His neofolkloric idiom found its most eloquent expression in his folk opera Tsvit paporoti (The Flower, Fern, 1980). He has also composed three ballets, the requiem Babyn Yar (1991), and Slovo o polku Ihorevim for soloists, choir and symphony orchestra; pieces for solo voice and for choir; church music; and film scores...

Yevhen Stankovych



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DYCHKO, LESIA (Ljudmyla), b 24 October 1939 in Kyiv. Composer. In 1964 Dychko graduated from the Kyiv Conservatory where she studied under Kostiantyn Dankevych and Borys Liatoshynsky. One of the leading Ukrainian composers of choir music, she was awarded the Shevchenko Prize in 1989. She has taught at the Kyiv Conservatory (now National Music Academy of Ukraine) since 1994 and became professor in 2009. Her works include two operas, two oratorios, four ballets; works for orchestra and chorus, most notably the symphony Pryvitannia zhyttia (Welcoming Life) for soprano, bass, and chamber orchestra, based on the words of the imagist poet Bohdan Ihor Antonych, and Viter revoliutsii (Wind of the Revolution) based on the poems of Maksym Rylsky and Pavlo Tychyna; numerous cantatas to the words of Taras Shevchenko, Mykola Vinhranovsky, and other poets; choir concertos and two choir poems: Holod - 33 (Famine 1933; based on the words of S. Kolomiiets) and Lebedi materynstva (The Swans of Motherhood; based on the poems by Vasyl Symonenko); music for piano; and film scores. Dychko was one of the first Ukrainian composers in Soviet Ukraine of the 1980s to begin composing church music and she has composed three liturgies...

Lesia Dychko



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KARABYTS, IVAN, b 17 January 1945 in Yalta, Pershotravneve raion, Donetsk oblast, d 20 January 2002 in Kyiv. Composer and conductor. A graduate of the Kyiv Conservatory (1971) and a student of Borys Liatoshynsky and Myroslav Skoryk, he conducted the Song and Dance Ensemble of the Kyiv Military District (1968-74), taught at the Kyiv Conservatory, and then served as artistic director of the Kyiv Camerata (Kyivska kamerata). From 1989 to 2001 he was artistic director of the Kyiv Music Fest international music festival. His compositions include a cycle of 24 preludes for piano, a piano trio, 3 concertos for orchestra, 3 art song cycles for voice and piano (including Pastels to the words of Pavlo Tychyna), the oratorio Charming the Fire, the opera-oratorio Kyiv Frescoes, a cantata based on Hryhorii Skovoroda's poem collection Sad bozhestvennykh pisen' (The Garden of Divine Songs), and several film scores...

Ivan Karabyts


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